[APUSH] Review #1
1. Chapter 1
Hopewell is a large Native American society located in the Mississippi Valley. They live on hunting and growing crops (maize) with prosperous culture of mound-building and distinctive pottery. Their political system is based on chiefdom with powerful ruling class.
The Iroquois Confederacy is a powerful association of 5 different Native American groups occupying the Eastern Woodlands region. The political authority is granted to councils of sachems. They live on hunting, fishing and gathering. Their society is matriarchal in which women are influential. The Iroquois is able to withstand attacks from opposing Native American groups and European colonists by skillful diplomacy.
The Sioux is a small settlement of Native American in present-day Minnesota. It is a confederation of 7 distinct peoples. The Sioux can ride horses and therefore, move west to dominate a vast territory.
The Pueblo is a large society of Native American located in the Arid Southwest. They develop irrigation system helping to manage scarce water and improve agriculture. They own distinctive building styles with towns built of adobe and rock.
Animism is the belief that nonhuman entities possess spiritual power. People need to perform rituals to appease these guardian spirits in order to ensure successful hunt, productive yield and good fortune. Women and men interact differently with these spiritual forces: women grow crops, maintain hearth, home, village and link their bodies’ generative functions with earth’s fertility; men hunt and war with rituals performed before, during and after every hunt to make sure the animal’s spirit rests.
Prince Henry of Portugal is a navigator and a sponsor for the voyages seeking maritime route to trade gold and slaves with Africa. He contributes in the opening of a long sea route around South Africa’s Cape of Good Hope, which leads to more intensive trade between Europe and Africa and Portugal’s dominance in the slave trade. He also uses his power to search for trade expansion and spread the Roman Catholic Church to overseas lands.
Treaty of Tordesillas is a treaty signed by 2 disputing kingdoms, Spain and Portugal, on dividing the New World. According to the treaty, Portugal claims present-day Brazil and Spain claims the rest of America.
2. Chapter 2
Encomienda is a Spanish labor system used during the American colonization period. The purposes are to control and exploit the Native American and reward individual Spaniards for their services to the Crown. The Spanish Crown grants a person a number of natives to take care by teaching Spanish, enslaving them, spreading Christianity. In return, the conquistador is given lands and is able to exploit labor, gold, silver and others from the Native America.
Columbian exchange refers to a series of biological and ecological changes happening due to the mutual contact of American, European and African. In term of biology, the colonists and slaves bring many deadly diseases to the New World such as small pox, measles, influenza, yellow fever which killing a vast toll of Native American. On the other hand, the Europeans get syphilis from the Native American. In term of ecology, the European bring food (wheat, barley, rice, sugar, dandelions, weeds), and animals (chicken, honeybee, horses, swine, oxen) to America in exchange of maize, potato, tomato, tobacco and cacao. The Columbian exchange has substantial effects on all the continents. In the New World, it leads to a sharp decrease in population and nature reshaping as the European destroy forests and establish farms and plantations. In Europe, Africa and Asia, it creates an explosion in population and a future of exploitation and intensive trade.
Mercantilism is an economic philosophy in the 17th, 18th century used by European countries. Its goals are to increase mother country’s wealth and power, to exploit slave and resources, and to establish a favorable balance of...
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