I Dont Know

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Psychology 1101
Spring 2008 - Test 2

1)

Learning the association between a particular behavior and its consequences is called _____ conditioning. A)

operant

B)

classical

C)

instrumental

D)

contractual

2)

The technique used to produce new behavior by reinforcing successive approximations of a final operant behavior is ________. A)

vicarious reinforcement

B)

shaping
C)

chaining

D)

secondary reinforcement

3)

Any event whose presence increases the likelihood that an ongoing behavior will recur is a(n) ________. A)

unconditioned stimulus

B)

positive reinforcer
C)

negative reinforcer

D)

conditioned stimulus

4)

When someone uses negative reinforcement to change a behavior, the behavior is likely to ________. A)

occur more frequently

B)

completely stop
C)

occur less frequently

D)

occur at the same rate

5)

Biofeedback is an application of ________.
A)

social learning

B)

operant conditioning
C)

preparedness

D)

classical conditioning

6)

A salesperson who gets an increase in salary for every 100 policies he or she sells is being reinforced according to what schedule of reinforcement? A)

fixed-interval

B)

fixed-ratio
C)

variable-interval

D)

variable-ratio

7)

A fourth-grade teacher realized that one of his students was misbehaving in order to receive attention. The teacher decided to ignore all instances of the misbehavior. The teacher is using ________. A)

extinction

B)

avoidance training
C)

the Premack principle

D)

negative reinforcement

8)

Information we want to retain needs to move through three stages or systems of memory. Which of the following represents the three stages or systems in order? A)

sensory, short-term, long-term

B)

episodic, sensory, semantic
C)

long-term, sensory, short-term

D)

short-term, sensory, long-term

9)

Visual information is generally erased from the sensory registers in about ________. A)

40 seconds

B)

one second
C)

1/4 of a second

D)

4 seconds

10)

Chunking is a means of ________.
A)

immediately forgetting irrelevant details
B)

storing long-term memories
C)

arranging details into a hierarchy from most to least important D)

organizing information into meaningful units

11)

We encode verbal information in short-term memory ________. A)

according to its meaning

B)

photographically
C)

abstractly

D)

phonologically, i.e. by sound

12)

When remembering verbal messages, we usually remember the ________. A)

meaning of the message and exact words
B)

meaning of the message but not the exact words
C)

exact nouns but not the exact verbs
D)

exact verbs but not the exact nouns

13)

Your memories of personal experiences such as what you wore to work yesterday or what you ate for breakfast this morning are stored in ________. A)

semantic memory

B)

procedural memory
C)

episodic memory

D)

emotional memory

14)

Our memories of general knowledge items such as the meanings of words or the dates of famous historical events are stored in ________ memory. A)

episodic

B)

semantic

C)

emotional

D)

procedural

15)

Remembering how to tie your shoes or drive a car are examples of ________ memory. A)

episodic

B)

procedural

C)

emotional

D)

semantic

16)

The brain structure involved in moving short-term memories into long-term memories is the ________. A)

basal forebrain

B)

substantia nigra
C)

basal ganglia

D)

hippocampus

17)

Which of the following is true?
A)

We are almost always motivated to...
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