When writing a book, most authors are writing about an issue they have. However, other themes become apparent through the course of the piece, either consciously or subconsciously. One such theme is a reversal of characters in A Tale of Two Cities. Individuals and groups of people change dramatically from the outset of the book all the way up to its conclusion. Three of the most obvious changes in character are Sydney Carton, Madame DeFarge, and the French people as a whole.
Sydney Carton is first described at Darnay's trial as not paying attention to what's going on, sort of an oaf. He is portrayed as a drunk, and even admits this to Darnay on their "date." However, love, they say, is strong; Carton's love for Lucy changed him greatly though the course of the novel. He stopped drinking when he visited, and even pledged his life to her, and everyone she loved. Carton changed even more dramatically when death on the guillotine was approaching. He waxed philosophical about the future, and even quoted a few scriptures. This is most certainly not the man first seen at the Old Bailey with the sideways wig.
Another interesting change took place in the character of Madame Defarge. She is first portrayed as a woman of principle who is helping her husband with the revolution. However, Madame Defarge makes a startling metamorphosis from supporting character to antagonist when she is revealed to be the shadow. She is shown to be cruel and petty, not the compassionate woman one would assume of a leader of a revolution against tyranny. This part of the novel casts a shadow of doubt over the rest of the characters, and one begins to question the validity of all the characters.
Finally, the French people themselves start out as downtrodden and miserable victims of a corrupt system. But it is illustrated that they could be just as heartless as their rich counterparts, the aristocrats, when it came...