A History of Medicine 16- 21st Centuries

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Professor Johnson
Western Civilization II
Section 301
22 April 2013

A History of Medicine: 16th-21st Centuries

In this paper you will find the exploration of medicine from the 16th century all the way through to the 21st century. It will look at the different medical advances through each time period as well as doctors, surgeon’s, physicians as well as scientist. It will look at several important and influential people that were responsible for the medical advances we have in today’s world. It looks at history makers such as, Giovanni Battista Morgagni, Joseph Lister, Sir Alexander Fleming and many more. It also looks at several different countries including The United States, England, Germany and several others, to show the different levels of advancement in different areas during the different time periods. I intend to have a better understand of how medical procedures and medicine were used throughout each of these centuries as well as, the failures and advances made by many of these great men that paved the way for future of medicine, from early times, through WWI and WWII up until our time in the 21st century.

* 1628- William Harvey studies the motion of the heart and of blood. * 1656- Sir Christopher Wren experiments with canine blood transfusions. * 1670- Discovery of blood cells by Anton van Leeuwenhoek. * 1701- Giacomo Pylarini tries to reproduce smallpox (History Timelines of Events ). * 1763- Claudius Aymand performs the first successful removal of the appendix. * 1796- Edward Jenner creates the first smallpox vaccine. * 1818- The first successful human blood transfusion done by James Blundell. * 1857- Louis Pasteur discovers germs as cause of diseases. * 1881-1882 Louis Pasteur creates the first anthrax and rabies vaccines (History Timelines of Events ). * 1901- Karl Landsteiner creates the system to classify blood type (A, B, AB, and O). * 1923-1927- First vaccine for diphtheria, whooping cough, tuberculosis and tetanus are developed. * 1928- Discovery of penicillin by Sir Alexander Fleming. * 1950-1952- Invention of the first cardiac pacemaker by John Hopps, developed by Paul Zoll. * 1953- James Watson and Francis Crick study the structure of DNA. * 1954- The first kidney transplant is performed by Dr. Joseph E. Murray. * 1967- First human heart transplant by Dr. Christian Bernard (History Timelines of Events ) * 2005- First human face transplant was done in France (Stibich). * 2006- Cervical Cancer vaccine HPV was created (Stibich). * 2012- Discovery of growing cells to make different parts of body tissue (NobelPrize.org 2012).

William Harvey, was born in England in 1578 was the oldest of seven children and the only one to pursue medical interests (Nuland, “Doctors” 121). William Harvey was the first to discover the circulation of blood (Nuland, “Doctors” 119). Although, many before him had a somewhat small understanding of it Harvey was the first to fully understand the circulation processes. In the Galenic Doctrine it was though that “blood is constantly being made anew in the liver from ingested food, and sent out to drench the tissues.” However, Harvey estimated that “Fluid capacity of the human ventricle to be approximately two or three ounces. Given a normal cardiac rate of seventy two beats per minute, over the course of one hour the heart must expel 8,640 ounces that is, 540 pounds of blood into the aorta.” This theory ultimately disproves the Galenic Doctrine (Nuland, “Doctors” 129-30). If we were to look into studies today about blood circulation you would find that William Harvey wasn’t to far off in his studies. Giovanni Battista Morgagni, was born in Northern Italy in 1682 he was patronage and an assistant to Antonio Maria Valsalva, a pronounced anatomist. Morgagni, was a well-known and well liked physician, who cared about his patients very deeply (Nuland, “Doctors” 146-47). It...
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