Chapter - 1 Overview of Banking Industry in India Introduction: Industry scenario of Indian Banking Industry Current Scenario Aggregate Performance of the Banking Industry o Interest Rate Scene: o Governmental Policy Implications of Some Recent Policy Measures Challenges Facing by Banking Industry: Users of Banking Services: o General Users o Industrial Users Bank Marketing In the Indian Perspective Bank Marketing Mix and Strategies o Product o Price o Promotion o Place Bank Marketing Strategies Challenges to Indian Banking: o Deregulation o Modified New rules o Efficiency o Diffused customer loyalty o Misaligned mindset o Competency gap Strategic options to cope with the challenges
Banking Industry Vision 2010 o Emerging Economic Scene o Future Landscape of Indian Banking o Changes in the Structure of Banks o Product Innovation and Process Re-Engineering o Technology In Banking o Risk Management o Regulatory and legal environment o Rural and Social Banking Issues o Human Resources Management References
Indian banking is the lifeline of the nation and its people. Banking has helped in developing the vital sectors of the economy and usher in a new dawn of progress on the Indian horizon. The sector has translated the hopes and aspirations of millions of people into reality. But to do so, it has had to control miles and miles of difficult terrain, suffer the indignities of foreign rule and the pangs of partition. Today, Indian banks can confidently compete with modern banks of the world. Before the 20th century, usury, or lending money at a high rate of interest, was widely prevalent in rural India. Entry of Joint stock banks and development of Cooperative movement have taken over a good deal of business from the hands of the Indian money lender, who although still exist, have lost his menacing teeth.
In the Indian Banking System, Cooperative banks exist side by side with commercial banks and play a supplementary role in providing need-based finance, especially for agricultural and agriculture-based operations including farming, cattle, milk, hatchery, personal finance etc. along with some small industries and self-employment driven activities.
Generally, co-operative banks are governed by the respective co-operative acts of state governments. But, since banks began to be regulated by the RBI after 1st March 1966, these banks are also regulated by the RBI after amendment to the Banking Regulation Act 1949. The Reserve Bank is responsible for licensing of banks and branches, and it also regulates credit limits to state co-operative banks on behalf of primary co-operative banks for financing SSI units.
Banking in India originated in the first decade of 18 th century with The General Bank of India coming into existence in 1786. This was followed by Bank of Hindustan. Both these banks are now defunct. After this, the Indian government established three presidency banks in India. The first of three was the Bank of Bengal, which obtains charter in 1809, the other two presidency bank, viz., the Bank of Bombay and the Bank of Madras, were established in 1840 and 1843, respectively. The three presidency banks were subsequently amalgamated into the Imperial Bank of India (IBI) under the Imperial Bank of India Act, 1920 – which is now known as the State Bank of India.
A couple of decades later, foreign banks like Credit Lyonnais started their Calcutta operations in the 1850s. At that point of time, Calcutta was the most active trading port, mainly due to the trade of the British Empire, and due to which banking activity took roots there and prospered. The first fully Indian owned bank was the Allahabad Bank, which was established in 1865.
By the 1900s, the market expanded with the establishment of banks such as Punjab National Bank, in 1895 in Lahore and Bank of India, in 1906, in Mumbai – both of which were founded under private ownership. The Reserve...
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