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Chapter 12

1.P. J. van Beneden proposed that an egg and a sperm, each containing half the complement of chromosomes found in somatic cells, fuse to produce a single cell called a _______.

2._______ is a process of nuclear division in which the number of chromosomes in certain cells is halved during gamete formation.

3.______ cells such as gametes contain one set of chromosomes.

4.Organisms that undertake sexual reproduction alternate between ______ and fertilization.

5.The two homologous chromosomes pair along their length early in the first nuclear division. During this physical joining genetic exchange occurs between them in a process called __________.

6.In _______ mode of reproduction, the chromosomes of the daughter cells and the parent cells are identical.

7.Sexual reproduction and the close association between homologous chromosomes that occurs during meiosis probably evolved as a mechanism to repair __________ damage.

8.Sexual reproduction is significant in increasing genetic ______.

9.Unlike meiosis I, there is no doubling of ___ before the start of meiosis II.

10.Evidence of crossing over can often be seen under the light microscope as an X-shaped structure known as ________.

11.The fusion of male gamete cells with female gamete cells is called A.syngamy
B.meiosis
C.mitosis
D.recombination
E.synapsis

12.Diploid organisms use meiosis for the development of gametes. Meiosis consist of how many rounds of nuclear division? A.one
B.two
C.three
D.four
E.answer not given

13.The pairing of chromosomes along their lengths which is essential for crossing-over is referred to as A.syngamy
B.synapsis
C.a tetrad
D.recombination
E.centromere

14.A common form of reproduction in arthropods involves the development of an adult from an unfertilized egg. This is called A.syngamy
B.binary fission
C.mitosis
D.meiosis
E.parthenogenesis

15.The cell produced by the fusion of an egg and a sperm is the A.gamete
B.haploid
C.zygote
D.germ line cell
E.somatic cell

16.The zygote has
A.one copy of each chromosome
B.one full haploid complement of chromosomes
C.chromosomes identical to those of a sperm cell
D.chromosomes identical to those of an egg cell
E.two copies of each chromosome

17.The reduction division that separates two haploid complements from each other is called A.mitosis
B.meiosis
C.syngamy
D.asexual reproduction
E.binary fission

18.All of the following animal cells are diploid except
A.gametic
B.muscles
C.nerves
D.skin
E.reproductive organ

19.In animals such as Hydra and corals, new individuals arise as buds on the body of an existing animal. This is called budding, which is a form of A.gamete formation
B.syngamy
C.meiosis
D.asexual reproduction
E.fertilization

20.The point of connection between the two sister chromatids before anaphase of mitosis separates them is called the A.homologue
B.kinetochore
C.centromere
D.microtubule complex
E.synapsis

21.Which of the following produces identical cells?
A.meiosis
B.mitosis
C.gamete formation
D.syngamy
E.fertilization

22.In animals, which of the following cells can undergo mitosis? A.somatic cells
B.germ line cells
C.gametes
D.haploid cells
E.egg and sperm cells

23.In animals, the cells that will eventually undergo meiosis to produce gametes are set aside early in the development. These are A.haploid cells
B.germline cells
C.sex cells
D.zygotes
E.sperm and egg cells

24.In one of the first steps in meiosis, the
A.clearly defined spindle apparatus appears in the center of the cell B.chromatids separate and move to...
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