Exam III Questions
1. Why do some scholars believe that China may become the next global superpower? Do you agree? Why or why not? Include specific facts regarding China to support your view.
- Why China will become a Superpower
o China’s government exported $762 B worth of goods in 2005 – an increase of 28% from the past year o China imported $660 B worth of goods in 2005 – and increase of 18% from the past year o Total foreign trade in 2005 was $1.4 M – this makes China the third-highest ranking country, preceded by only the United States and Germany – precedes Japan now; this is the first time that China has grossed more than Japan o A decade ago they made only $289 B
o Many of our goods are now labeled “Made in China” o China’s autocratic government and limited constraints on the military will allow it to reach the status of world superpower o China’s military is the largest standing army in the world, with about 3 M soldiers and some 1.2 M reserves. They are a nuclear power, and have medium-range and intercontinental ballistic missiles - Personal opinion
o Do you agree? Why or why not?
2. Discuss the many centripetal and centrifugal forces acting within India. Why is this country considered to be one of the world’s most complex states, and what are the most serious challenges facing India as it moves into the twenty-first century?
- cultural strength of Hinduism, its sacred writings, holy rivers, and influence over Indian life - for most Indians, Hinduism is a way of life as much as it is a faith and its diffusion over the entire country brings with it a national coherence that constitutes a powerful antidote to regional divisiveness. - Democratic institutions- in a country as culturally diverse and as populous as India, reliance on democratic institutions has been a birthright ever since independence, and democracy’s survival( crucial unifier. - Communications are better in much of India than in many other countries in the global periphery - Continuous circulation of people, ideas, and goods helps bind the disparate state together - Before independence, opposition to British rule was a shared philosophy( strong force - Preservation of union is now a common objective thanks to national planning - India’s capacity for accommodating major changes and its flexibility in the fact of regional and local demands - Federal power and cooperative negotiation have allowed boundaries to be shifter, internal political entities to be created, relocated or modified, and secessionist demands have been handled - India’s history of success
- Education: high literary rates (exceeds 96% for both males and females) - Educational opportunity (colonial legacy)
- India has the educated workforce to seize opportunities for service jobs on the global economic scene. - Strong leadership: Gandhi, Nehru, and others( did much to unify India by the strength of their compelling personalities.
- Hinduism’s stratification of society into castes remains pervasive(castes are fixed layers in society whose ranks are based on ancestries, family ties, and occupations. ( thus in the city as well as the village, communities were segregated according to caste, ranging from highest (priests, princes) to the lowest (the untouchables). - Hindutva or Hinduness- a desire to remake India as a society in which Hindu principles prevail( this concept has become the guiding agenda for a political party that has become a powerful component of the federal gov’t and it is variously expressed as Hindu nationalism, Hindu patriotism, and Hindu heritage( this worries Muslims and other minorities, but also concerns those who understand that India’s secularism, its separation of religion and state, is indispensable to the survival of its democracy...