On international varieties of English: Compare and contrast two non-Anglo varieties of English (i.e. excluding those from Kachru’s Inner Circle), showing how the socio-historical context is reflected in their present characteristics.
Postcolonial countries where the English language is not the mother tongue have still fallen under the influence of the British language. Where the education system, government, commerce, business and some instruction are carried out in variations of English. This assignment will contrast and compare Zambia and Nigeria, countries in which types of English are spoken. The variation of English used in Nigeria and Zambia is born out of these two countries colonial connection to The United Kingdom
Braj Kachru( 1985) sees the inner and outer circle as a codification method in representing levels of function, acquisition and the spread of the English language. Where English spoken within the outer circle has mainly been a product of colonization. Fundamental linguistic synthesis has evolved. Within a country like Nigeria, to such a level that a variety of Nigerian English [broken or pidgin] has become the lingua franca for the majority of the country. Zambia a country located in the South of Africa is landlocked by the DRC Democratic republic of the Congo in the North, and Botswana and Zimbabwe in the South. Whilst Nigeria has one of the largest populations in Africa [162,471,000] [United nations , 2011]. The population of Zambia is a mere 13,881,336 [July 2011 est.][World Bank, 2011]
Nigeria is a country that has up to 450 languages that are known to be spoken. English is the recognised official language used for politics business and education, Like the Zambia which as up to 72 spoken indigenous language in use. English is also the language of education and business. Both countries were under British Colonial rule, Zambia was administrated from the British colony of Northern Rhodesia (Heine & Bernd, 1997). The country obtained its independence in 1964. Nigeria gained its independence four years earlier from Britain on October 1st 1960.
Nigeria the most populated country in Africa, it is located in the western region of the continent. Modern day Nigeria’s historical descendants dates back to 999 BC The three largest tribes of Nigeria are Yoruba, Igbo and Hausa [Ref]. Before any contact was ever made with non-Africans the Nigerian people of which the Yoruba was the largest tribe, lived in patrilineal groups and worked as farmers (Juan,2008). Portuguese and Spanish explores were the first Europeans to come into contract with the Nigerians. In January 1901 Nigeria became a British protectorate, with this came a greater influence of English education and commercial business over Nigeria (Owhonda, 1997). Zambia also had early influence from the Portuguese the fist recorded Portuguese person being Manuel Pereira a farmer who set foot in the country in 1796 (Juan, 2008).
Within Sub Saharan Africa Zambia has 45 percent of its population living within urban towns, unemployment is a major problem, leaving many people to exist as self sufficient farmers (Holmes & Wong,2008). Up to 95 percent of Zambians belong to the nine main tribes; these tribes are ethno linguistic in nature, such that the 72 languages predominately evolved out of culture and language. Nigeria is seen as a mixed economic market country. The stock exchange is listed as number 31st in the world and the 2nd largest In Africa (Falola , Heaton,2008). Nigeria is a very mixed country it is made up of 250 ethnic groups, the largest of these groups are the, Yoruba and Igbo Hausa these three groups make up 65 percent of the population (Miller P F, et al ,2009). The few minority groups of Americans British, Chinese, Zimbabwean and Syrian mainly live in the Niger Delta [an oil producing state], Lagos and the new capital Abuja (Owhonda, 1997).
At the present time the actual number of languages in Nigeria is 521...