Introduction to Workplace Learning:
* Learning is the most significant factor contributing to organizational success, especially in the light that knowledge will rapidly supercede capital, labor and raw materials. * Concepts of learning can be either formal learning or informal learning. * Traditionally learning was more relied on off the job learning methods such as training courses, seminars and educational programs. * Focused developmental programs
* Usually a management initiative
* Practical; helps people acquire job related knowledge and skills * Has specific and measurable outcome
* Task centered, rather than a learner centered
* Achieved in a fixed time period
* One of the most significant developments of HRD is its focus on workplace learning or informal learning, which emerged from the limitations of formal learning (suffer in terms of transfer to job or lacking relevance to learners needs). * There is lack of clear definition on workplace learning, but it still appears to be centered around a number of key concepts (Eraut, 2000) 1) Concerns on the reflection on and learning from experience; 2) Significant based on the real life problem solving;
3) Acknowledges that much learning is also a function of a collective activity situated within a specific social context as much as it’s individual.
Most of our learning comes from what we are doing, and throughout our lives we learn from our experiences (Dennison and Krik 1990).
* Learning takes places as a result of experience.
* And that experience is processed by conscious thought and by doing something new. * The learner must actively take responsibility of the learning. * But it can be facilitated and made more efficient by skillful management.
Experiential learning cycle by Kolb D ‘74
Testing implications of
Concept in a new situations
Observation and Reflection
abstract concepts and generalization
Some implications of experiential Learning Theory – Knowles et all 1984
* Learners should be motivated to learn
* Learning should be enjoyable and satisfying
* Learners must take responsibility of their own learning. * New learning must relate to what has been learned before. * Leaner must be allowed time for reflection.
The Socio-Cultural perceptive of learning:
* This perceptive of learning is seen as arising from a complex interaction between knowledge acquisition, identity and practice based within the work or social activity group (Lave and Wenger, 1991). This is a community that learns not the individual.
Learning therefore arises as a result of participation within social communities and is inextricably linked to practice and action. Learning increases as participants within social communities attain participation in the socio-cultural practices associated with each community.
Two Components of developmental space –Van der Zwet et al.
Students need developmental space in order to truly “Learn from doing”.
1) Contextual space:
* The possibility for students to mind their learning was influenced by the attributes of the working environment, such as material, organizational and educational elements. Contextual space, for example, was strongly determined by the presence or absence of a special room for students with a computer and access to patient records and by the scheduling of patient consultations for students.
2) Socio-emotional space:
* Socio-emotional space embodies how students’ state of mind, often originating from interactions with the social environment, influences possibilities for learning. Students’ relationships with their supervisor, other team members and patients influenced their social and professional position within the practice. The nature of these relationships was partly influenced by the local working...