Impact of flexible scheduling on employee performance regarding stress and work-family conflict Raja Abdul Ghafoor Khan (Corresponding Author) MS Scholar, University of Lahore, Islamabad, Pakistan E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Furqan Ahmad Khan MS Scholar, University of Lahore, Islamabad, Pakistan E-mail: email@example.com Dr. Muhammad Aslam Khan Associate Professor, Preston University, Islamabad Pakistan E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Mohsin Shakeel MS Scholar, University of Lahore, Islamabad, Pakistan E-mail: email@example.com ABSTRACT Stress, work-family conflicts and flexible scheduling are three of the most important elements in organizational studies. The focus of current study is to understand the effect of Stress, workfamily conflicts and flexible scheduling on employee’s performance and also to understand whether flexible scheduling helps in reducing stress and work-family conflicts or not. The back bone of this study is the secondary data comprised of comprehensive literature review. A survey has also been conducted to strengthen the idea comprising of a sample of 70 employees from different organizations. 53 of them responded and the respond rate was 75%. Descriptive statistics is used to analyze the data. Results show that stress and work family conflict negatively affect the employee performance and flexible scheduling has a positive effect on employee performance. Primary study as well as literature review showed that flexible scheduling also helps in reducing stress and work-family conflicts. However, results are strongly based on the literature review i.e. secondary data. Keywords: Work-family conflict, flexible scheduling, work-family balance, employee performance. Paper Type: Research Paper
INTRODUCTION Work family balance is one of the most emerging concepts in the field of business and in the corporate world. Organizations are trying to reduce this conflict for the betterment of organization as well as for the employees. Western researchers have done a considerable work on this concept of work-family balance (Berg et al., 2003; Frone, 2003; Rossi, 2001; Marcinkus et al., 2007; Young, 1999). Actually work-family balance is used to reduce the work-family conflict. Normally work-family conflicts come into action when an employee cannot make a balance between his/her work and family. This conflict has now become very popular in press 1
Far East Journal of Psychology and Business
Vol. 4 No. 3 September 2011
(Conlin 2000; Hammonds, Furchgott, Hamm, & Judge, 1997; Morris, 1997) and in academic literature (Ernst & Ozeki, 1998; Grant-Vallone, 1998; Roman & Blum, 2001; Secret & Sprang, 2001; Senecal, et al., 2001; Wallace, 1999). Most of the work has been done in the late 90’s and early 2000’s. Flexible scheduling which is an alternative work schedule as compared to regular work arrangement i.e. from 9:00am to 4:00pm; which have been in use for number of years. As mentioned above that it is an alternative work arrangement which gives employees some relaxation so that they could complete the given assignment according to their own work schedule. Many organizations have adopted this arrangement to their work place. It is because of the fact that many of them believes that flexible work arrangement helps their employees to overcome the problem of conflict between their work and their family (Almer, et al., 2003; Cohen & Single, 2001, Hill, et al., 2001, Meyer, 1997). Most of the organizations adopted flexible scheduling practices and they have become more family-friendly because of the fact that the flexible work arrangements are common components of many family-responsive human resource policies (Glass & Estes, 1997; Glass & Finley, 2002; Grover & Crooker, 1995), and because of this kind of scheduling these organizations became more popular (Sara A. Rogier, et al. 2004). Stress is also a very important factor in effecting the performance of...