Copyright 2000 by the Educational Publishing Foundation 1076-8998«0/$5.00 DOI: 10.1037//1076-899B.5.2.278
Consequences Associated With Work-to-Family Conflict: A Review and Agenda for Future Research Tammy D. Allen, David E. L. Herst, Carly S. Bruck, and Martha Sutton University of South Florida
A comprehensive review of the outcomes associated with work-to-family conflict was conducted and effect sizes were estimated. A typology was presented that grouped outcomes into 3 categories: work related, nonwork related, and stress related. Issues concerning the measurement of workfamily conflict were also discussed. The results demonstrate the widespread and serious consequences associated with work-to-family conflict. On the basis of the results of the review, an agenda for future research was provided.
Striking changes in the nature of families and the workforce, such as more dual-career couples and rising numbers of working mothers with young children, have increased the likelihood that employees of both genders have substantial household responsibilities in addition to their work responsibilities (Bond, Galinsky, & Swanberg, 1998; Gilbert, Hallett, & Eldridge, 1994). These radical changes have prompted considerable research related to work and family issues. The topic of work-family conflict has been of particular conflict interest. Recent research indicates that 40% of employed parents experience work-family at least some of the time 1993). Moreover, (Galinsky, Bond, & Friedman,
Kahn, Wolfe, Quinn, Snoek, and Rosenthal (1964) suggested that work-family conflict is a type of interrole conflict in which role pressures from the work and family domains are mutually incompatible to some degree. That is, work-family conflict occurs when demands associated with one domain are Kopelman, incompatible with demands associated with the other domain (Greenhaus & Buetell, 1985; Greenhaus, & Connolly, 1983). Although early
research treated work-family conflict primarily as a unidimensional construct, recent research (Frone, Russell, & Cooper, 1992) suggests that it is reciprocal in nature, in that work can interfere with family (work-to-family conflict; WFC) and family can interfere with work (family-to-work conflict; FWC). WFC and FWC are generally considered distinct but related constructs. Research to date has primarily investigated how work interferes or conflicts with family. Outcomes associated with excessive work interference with family include job dissatisfaction, job burnout, turnover, depression, life dissatisfaction, and marital dissatisfaction (e.g., Adams, King, & King, 19%; R. J. Burke, 1988; Frone et al., 1992; Greenhaus & Beutell, 1985; Netemeyer, Boles, & McMurrain, 1996; Thomas & Ganster, 1995). Despite the rapidly growing body of literature examining WFC, few efforts have been made to review empirical findings. Over a decade ago, Greenhaus and Beutell (1985) reviewed the studies that had investigated sources or antecedents of WFC. More recently, Kossek and Ozeki (1998) conducted a meta-analysis examining the relationship between WFC and two specific outcomes: job satisfaction and life satisfaction. Kossek and Ozeki's work was much needed and an informative addition to the literature. However, there are many additional outcome variables that have been empirically related to WFC that were not included in Kossek and Ozeki's study. The
Galinsky et al. reported that workers who started a new job within the past 2 years stated that the effect of the job on family life was second in importance to open communications when formulating their decision to accept the job. Likewise, Galinsky, Johnson, and Friedman (1993) cited a study conducted by the New York Times indicating that 83% of working mothers and 72% of working fathers reported experiencing conflict between their job demands and their desire to spend more time with their families....