Women and Sports: The Impact of Title IX
2012 marks the 40 year anniversary of Title IX. Equality was what Title IX aimed to implement and this research paper will analyze the conflicts that still exist within Title IX and how much of a leap we have taken from this act especially women. Conflicts and controversy include Title IX being responsible and holding back men’s collegiate sports and causing universities to drop programs. While men seem to be losing benefits, women are also losing benefits they are not receiving the funds that Title IX states. Regardless of controversy this act has benefited society. Title IX was life changing and has shown significant improvement.
Women and Sports: The Impact of Title IX
Equality wasn’t always an option for women in sports and education. It wasn’t until June 23, 1972 when Title IX was enacted nationwide. Before Title IX was in effect, the ratio of high school girls participating in extracurricular activities were 1:27 (Garber 2002). These numbers seem unrealistic and ridiculous don’t they? Title IX is the reason that the ratio of participants in extracurricular activities for women is now 1:2 (Garber 2002). Women also weren’t even able to attend Universities or even able to be doctors! Something so significant, yet so many people are still unaware of what Title IX is. It has been 40 years since Title IX has been amended but controversy still exist with Title IX. Many people especially sports analyses have argued that women received higher benefits than women, calling it reverse discrimination. Title IX has been mainly headlined in collegiate sports having Universities comply with Title IX and forcing Universities to drop their men’s sports programs. Are they using Title IX as a scapegoat for falling men’s athletic programs? They also argue that at the time Title IX was created the act was too vague and gave women too many advantages. Regardless, this act has changed not only women’s athletics but the face of women forever and for the better. Women have come a far way that includes many benefits that no one thought was possible in 1972.
Title IX, also known as the Patsy T. Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act named after its principal author. It is a large portion of the Education Amendments of 1972. Title IX states “No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance...” In other words, Title IX has allowed women to receive the same benefits as men in the academic field. Though Title IX was originally an act for equal scholarship opportunity, it has mainly been headlined in the collegiate sports department controversy. The controversy includes athletic departments struggling to comply with Title IX since it was written so vague. Numerous sports programs have been dropped to compliance with Title IX. Title IX requires participation in athletics to be equal. For example, if the university is 60% women and 40% men, then athletic participation and scholarships have to be 60% women and 40% men (Darnell 2011). The average university includes 54% female, so athletic participation and scholarship funds must be at least 54% nationwide (Owoc). James Madison University has recently dropped 7 men’s sports programs in 2006 to comply with Title IX (Darnell 2011). Other programs include Cornell University dropping its fencing program after 98 years, UCLA swimming and diving program that produced 16 gold medalists, and Boston University dropping its football team after 91 years (Owoc). Not only do these people believe that programs been dropped because of it, but programs have yet to emerge because of it. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) defines compliance as a commitment to expanding opportunity for women, and that the school is meeting the athletic needs of its female...
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