CORPORATE GOVERNANCE SUCCESSES AND FAILURES
|Student Name: Binish Nida Afaque | |
WHY CORPORATE GOVERNANCE BECOMES IMPORTANT NOW?
Corporate Governance standards are changing now. The 2008-2009 global financial crisis hit almost the whole world and causes the economic meltdown and recession not only in developing countries but in many rich and developed countries. That is why the debate on the importance of state intervention and its role in companies and their businesses started once again and gaining strength. We all know that before the financial crisis, USA was one of the biggest capitalist states and Government intervention was low in the private sectors letting the companies specially the financial institutions to perform such business practice which were ethically wrong. When the oil prices were decreased after the 1997-1998 crises in gulf region, the dollar gained strength the strong dollar increases the buying power of US citizens and their spending habit. Because of cheap oil the productivity was also increased. The interest rates were low at that time and borrowing was cheap. House finance, car finance, credit cards markets were at boom. Because of surplus money and cheap loans people were spending more and asset markets were flourishing at rapid speed, creating asset bubble. Financial institutions were offering mortgage loans and they over valued the asset prices in calculating the value of asset which was to be used as a security in mortgage loans. When the default rates increased because of their loose credit policies and fragile risk management, the banks could not recover their investment amount because over valued asset did not pay them back as the asset bubble was burst and the real estate market was collapsed. Most of the financial institutions were also defaulted. The US Govt. did not bail out the Lehman Brothers after they announced the bankruptcy. This created the panic among the investors and they started pulling out their money, accelerating the financial crisis. Most of the largest banks in America had investment in mortgage backed securities like Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae; hold some $5trillion in mortgage backed securities. “The $10 trillion mortgage market went into a state of severe turmoil.”  This crisis was responsible for one of the greatest recessions in history after the great depression of 1930. “Outside of the U.S., the Bank of China and France BNP Paribas were the first international institutions to declare substantial looses from subprime-related securities. Just underneath the U.S. subprime debacle was the European subprime catastrophe. Ireland, Portugal, Spain and Italy were the worst hit. The U.S. Federal Reserve, the European Central Bank, the Bank of Japan, the Reserve Bank of Australia and the Bank of Canada all began injecting huge chunks of liquidity into the banking system. France, Germany and the United Kingdom announced more than €163 billion ($222 billion) of new bank liquidity and €700 billion (nearly $1 trillion) in interbank loan guarantees.” 
The Laissez faire, free market, or Adam Smith’s invisible hands philosophy has failed and most of the institutions in USA are nationalized now. “On 11 October 2008, finance ministers from the Group of Seven, G-7, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the U.K. and the U.S. met in Washington but “failed to agree on a concrete plan to address the crisis.” On October 13, several European countries nationalized their banks in an attempt to increase liquidity. On November 14, leaders from twenty major economies gathered in Washington to design a joint effort towards regulating the global financial sector.” Corporate Governance once again returns back to the Concession theory which says companies are formed by the concession of state therefore state role in company is prime and Fiction theory says that company is a legal fiction and law should...