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When the Games Come to Town: Host Cities and the Local Impacts of the Olympics A report on the impacts of the Olympic Games and Paralympics on host cities

Dr Mary Smith
London East Research Institute Working Papers December 2008

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CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION
1. 2 Olympics as mega event – why they’re not just about sport 1. 3 What is legacy? Analysis and how to read the trends 1. 4 London’s background 1. 5 London’s bid 1. 6 Legacy’s legacy: heritage and the use of legacy as a policy tool for London (2012) 1. 7 Bid vs. reality 1. 8 Why look at previous Olympic host cities? 1. 9 Locals and the Games 1. 10 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: Locals 1. 11 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: KEY DYNAMICS AND TRENDS 1. 12 THEMES AND PRIORITY AREAS

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2. EMPLOYMENT & SKILLS
2. 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 2. 2 Employment and the Olympics 2. 3 Different job effects and contexts 2. 4 Employment opportunities? 2. 5 The value of Olympic work to locals 2. 6 Past host cities 2. 7 Conclusions

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3. VOLUNTEERING
3. 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 3. 2 Volunteering as policy tool 3. 3 Recruitment 3. 4 Motivations 3. 5 Experiences 3. 6 Commitment and incentives 3. 7 Conclusions 3.8 Suggestions

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4. VISITORS & NON LOCALS: IMAGE AND REPUTATION OF THE AREA
4. 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 4. 2 Tourism 4. 3 Characteristics and Associations 4. 4 Reputation of the locale 4. 5 Media: do they decide legacy? 4. 6 Publicity about Protest 4. 7 Anti harassment protocols 4. 8 Conclusions 4. 9 Suggestions

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WELLBEING: PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, BUILT ENVIRONMENT AND LOCALS AND THE GAMES 5. HEALTH, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND WELLBEING 5. 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 5. 2 Spectating and motivation at mega events 5. 3 Sports participation and physical activity 5. 4 Obstacles to participation 5. 5 Sports and Age: are there any trends? 5. 6 Culture and ethnicity: Does culture influence participation? 5. 7 Gender: Does gender affect sports participation? 5. 8 Role Models? 5. 9 Conclusions 5. 10 Suggestions

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6. BUILT ENVIRONMENT AND HOUSING
6. 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 6. 2 Sustainable Developments: Built environment and public spaces 6. 3 Olympic sites: Why here? 6. 4 Planning and development 6. 5 Olympic Parks & recreational facilities 6. 6 Olympic Villages, Public and private partnerships 6. 7 General trends 6. 8 Case studies Barcelona 1992 Atlanta 1996 Sydney 2000 Athens 2004 6. 9 Conclusions 6. 10 Suggestions

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7. LOCAL INCLUSION: LOCALS AND THE OLYMPICS
7. 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 7. 2 Winners and losers? 7. 3 Opportunities to participate? 7. 4 Value for money? 7. 5 Local culture, local people, local inclusion 7. 6 Case Study: Disabled people and the Olympics: the Paralympics? 7. 7 Case Study: Cultural Olympiads 7. 8 Conclusions 7. 9 Suggestions

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8. APPENDIX 9. BIBLIOGRAPHY 10. ENDNOTES

84 86 97

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1. CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION This report arises from research into the experiences of previous host Olympic cities. It combines research in several thematic areas of Olympic studies with analysis and recommendations designed for consideration by local policy makers and communities. The report is written in a briefing style, and provides added context in separate sections. BACKSTORY The modern Games were conceived in the late 19th century by Pierre de Courbertin as a festival of humanity, an elevation of universal values via the performance of sport and culture. As a result cultural festivities, now known as the Cultural Olympiad, were run in tandem with the sporting event. In the last 25 years the Cultural Olympiad has been held in the host nation over the 4 year period leading up to the Games. Likewise, the efforts of disabled athletes in games events were accepted by the International Olympic Committee as a parallel event in 1988 and are now known as the Paralympics. Since 2001 a host country must undertake to host the Paralympics with the Olympic event. This means that the Olympic event in its entirety now occupies a four year period with five weeks of competition in which the...
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