What is a Projectile?
In Unit 1 of the Physics Classroom Tutorial, we learned a variety of means to describe the 1-dimensional motion of objects. In Unit 2 of the Physics Classroom Tutorial, we learned how Newton's laws help to explain the motion (and specifically, the changes in the state of motion) of objects that are either at rest or moving in 1-dimension. Now in this unit we will apply both kinematic principles and Newton's laws of motion to understand and explain the motion of objects moving in two dimensions. The most common example of an object that is moving in two dimensions is a projectile. Thus, Lesson 2 of this unit is devoted to understanding the motion of projectiles. A projectile is an object upon which the only force acting is gravity. There are a variety of examples of projectiles. An object dropped from rest is a projectile (provided that the influence of air resistance is negligible). An object that is thrown vertically upward is also a projectile (provided that the influence of air resistance is negligible). And an object which is thrown upward at an angle to the horizontal is also a projectile (provided that the influence of air resistance is negligible). A projectile is any object that once projected or dropped continues in motion by its own inertia and is influenced only by the downward force of gravity.

By definition, a projectile has a single force that acts upon it - the force of gravity. If there were any other force acting upon an object, then that object would not be a projectile. Thus, the free-body diagram of a projectile would show a single force acting downwards and labeled force of gravity (or simply Fgrav). Regardless of whether a projectile is moving downwards, upwards, upwards and rightwards, or downwards and leftwards, the free-body diagram of the projectile is still as depicted in the diagram at the right. By definition, a projectile is any object upon which the only force is gravity.

...ProjectileMotion Lab Report
Objectives:
This laboratory experiment presents the opportunity to study motion in two dimensions, projectilemotion, which can be described as accelerated motion in the vertical direction and uniform motion in the horizontal direction.
Procedures and Apparatus:
|Rubber Ball |White sheets of papers |
|Metal Track |Water |
|Books |Table |
|Meter-stick |Stopwatch |
• Obtain all the apparatus and material needed to proceed with experiment
• Set up a ramp using the metal track and a bunch of books at any angle so that the ball will roll off.
• Measure the distance from the edge of the table to the end of the ramp.
• Roll the ball down the ramp and off the table but make sure to catch the ball as soon as it leaves the table; do this part 10 times and record the times
• Calculate average velocity for this step
• Measure the height (vertical distance or the y-axis) of the table.
• Using this height, derive t (time) from the uniform accelerated motion in order to obtain the predicted distance x.
• The next step is to release the ball from the ramp and let it fall off the table to the floor.
• Measure the spot on the floor where the ball hits the...

...y I. Introduction
In this lab the main focus was projectilemotion. A projectile is an object flying through the air that is only under the force of gravity (neglecting air resistance). A projectile moves both horizontally and vertically, which creates a parabolic flight path. In vertical projectilemotion there is a constant velocity since there are no forces in the horizontal direction (neglecting drag due to air resistance). Consequently, there is no acceleration in horizontal projectilemotion. In vertical projectilemotion gravity is acting on the projectile, which means that the acceleration in vertical projectilemotion is equal to gravity’s acceleration (9.8m/s2). Some equations for projectilemotion are the three kinematic equations, the equation for Vx (Vx = ∆x/∆t), and the equation for time (∆t = 2∆y/g).
The purpose of this lab was to get a projectile falling off a ramp on a table to land in a cup by using equations that are related to projectilemotion. The hypothesis was that if all the calculations were correct (based on the horizontal and vertical speed of the projectile, the height of the table, the height of the cup, the time for the projectile to pass through the...

...TITLE
To investigate the trajectory of a small ball as it rolls off a surface which is inclined to the horizontal.
OBJECTIVE
To investigate the trajectory of a two dimensional motion
APPARATUS & MATERIALS
Ramp
Wooden block
Pendulum bob
Plumb line
Steel ball
Wooden board
Carbon paper
Meter rule
Plasticine
SETUP
1. A ramp has been set up at the edge of a bench as shown in the Figure 4-1.
2. Suspend a plum-line from the edge of the bench as shown in Figure 4-2.
3. Mount a wooden board horizontally using two clamps so that the board is situated
about the bottom of the ramp.
4. Place a sheet of blank paper on top of the board.
5. Place a piece of carbon paper on the top of the blank paper. The ink-side of the
carbon paper should be facing down.
6. When a ball is released at the top of the ramp, the ball will travel through a
trajectory as shown in Figure 4-2.
THEORY
Let:
g =
u = speed of the ball as it leaves the ramp
k = constant
y = vertical distance (between the bottom of the ramp and the top of the board)
x = horizontal distance (between the plum-line and mark on the paper)
The equation which relates to x and y is
PROCEDURE
1. Position the ball at the top of the ramp. Release the ball so that it rolls down the
ramp and onto the board below.
2. Remove the carbon paper and observe that the ball makes a small mark on the blank
paper....

...Pre-lab:
Newtons Three Laws of Motion:
There are three laws of motion that have been stated by Sir Isaac Newton during the sixteenth century that are looked upon even today.
The first of these laws states that an object will stay in at rest or in a constant velocity unless a force acts upon it. In simplest terms this means that if u place an apple on the table it isn't just going to roll off.
The second of these laws states that when a force acts upon an object it causes it to accelerate, and the greater the mass of the object the more of the force will be needed to push it. Basically this means that it takes more force to move a heavy object than it does to move a lighter object. The Second Law of Motion can be stated as Force = (Mass)(Acceleration).
The third and final law of motion states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. This simply means that pushing on an object causes that object to push back against you, the exact same amount, but in the opposite direction.
Motion:
Motion is movement. It is the act of moving and remaining at rest. When you have motion you have a velocity that is greater than zero.
Force:
A force is anything that causes an object to move and accelerate which would be still if the force was absent.
Inertia:
Inertia is remaining at a constant velocity or at rest without any external force...

...investigation By Rex Whiticker
ProjectileMotion
Abstract:
The Project motion of a catapult being fired is varied by a range of factors that affect the path of the projectile. In this experiment, the angle of trajectory, mass of the projectile and change in initial velocity of the launch, were all factors considered in the end result to investigate the properties of projectilemotion. The purpose of the experiment was to conduct a first-hand investigation to design and analysis how angle, weight and power affect projectilemotion, collecting approximate values and recording results.
Introduction:
Parabolic motion has been studied for a long time dating all the way back to the time in which Galileo was conducting experiments. During the experiment two angles were fired at 320 and 100 at two different power levels and weights.
Galileo was the first person who accurately described projectilemotion. Because of the drawings of Niccolo Tartaglia, Galileo realized that a projectile followed a curved path which is called a parabola. The parabola had an exact mathematical shape that was acted upon two forces, vertical and horizontal. His experiments included rolling balls down a highly polished inclined plane (to lower the acceleration) and record similarities. His work showed that...

...Lebanese American University
Classical Physics
3 . ProjectileMotion
Objectives:
Students will measure the maximum height H and the range R of a projectilemotion.
They will study the effect of the shooting angle on H and R.
Material used:
4 rulers, track, metallic ball, landing track, A4 white paper, red carbon paper, timer + supply, gun
+ protractor.
Theory:
A projectile is an object upon which the only force acting is gravity. There are a variety
of examples of projectiles: an object dropped from rest is a projectile (provided that the
influence of air resistance is negligible), an object thrown vertically upwards is a
projectile (provided that the influence of air resistance is negligible), and an object
thrown upwards at an angle is also a projectile (the same assumption). A projectile is
any object, which once projected, continues its motion by its own inertia and is
influenced only by the downward force of gravity.
By definition, a projectile has only one force acting upon - the force of gravity. If there
were any other force acting upon an object, then that object would not be a projectile.
Projectiles can be launched both horizontally and vertically, and they have both
horizontal and vertical velocity and horizontal and vertical displacement.1
...

...Example ProjectileMotion Lab Report
You may not copy the exact words here in any way on a re-written lab.
Determination on the Effect of Angle on the Range of a Projectile
Joselyn J. Todd, other science students, and even other science students
Sept. 12, 2006
Joselyn J. Todd, Example Lab, 9/12/2006
2
Introduction
Parabolic motion has been studied for a long time dating all the way back to the
time in which Galileo was conducting experiments. In this lab report, the range a
foam disk launcher shot was tested by altering the angle of trajectory followed by
measuring the range. The range that the foam disk went was measured in
centimeters and multiple shots were taken at each angle and then averaged.
Galileo was the first person who accurately described projectilemotion. Because
of the drawings of Niccolo Tartaglia, Galileo realized that a projectile followed a
curved path which is called a parabola.1 It was later found out by Galileo that the
parabola has an exact mathematical shape. Also, he stated that a projectile was
acted upon by two forces, vertical and horizontal. The vertical force was from
gravity, which pulled it to Earth at 9.8 m/s. That is why a parabola is a precise
mathematical equation.2
Observations were conducted before the experiment was started. First,
observations were made on two racquetballs, one being...

...ProjectileMotion
The purpose of this lab is to study the properties of projectilemotion. From the motion of a steel ball projected horizontally, the initial velocity of the ball can be determined from the measured range. For a given initial velocity, the projectile range will be measured for various initial angles, and also calculated by applying the theory for motion with constant acceleration. For further background information, refer to the sections in your textbook on projectilemotion and motion with constant acceleration.
THEORY For a given initial velocity, v0 , and initial position, s0 ,the position of a particle, s, as a function
of time, undergoing constant acceleration, a is given by sr = sr 0 + vr 0 t + 12 ar t 2 ( 1 )
This is a vector equation and can be broken up into its x, y, and z components. Since the motion is in a plane, we need only look at the x and y components. If we neglect air resistance, the acceleration in the y direction is -g, due to gravity. The acceleration in the x direction is zero. Hence, the vector equation (1) becomes two scalar equations:
If we eliminate t in Eqs.(5) we get y as a function of x. gx2
and solving for vo we get
x = x0 + v 0x t (2) y=y+v t-1gt2
0 0y In terms of the angle θ, and the initial speed vo, the initial velocity components are
v0x=v0cosθand v0y=v0sinθ...

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