On the uses and Implications of Constructionism. By: Yeros P. 1999
In the development of the study of ethnicity and nationalism, the concepts of ethnicity and nationhood are often considered to be distinct. Conventionally, ethnicity has been conceptualized within a continuum between primodialism and instrumentalism. Meanwhile, nationalhood and nationalism have been understood as the process that either owned their existence to various dimension of modernity. The enlightenment, industrialization, capitalist social relations, print capitalism or state or to the determine resilience of ethnicity in conjunction with modern social-political circumstances. One concept applied is” imagined community” developed by Benedict Anderson. It demonstrates the emergency of nationhood at the historical conjunction of capitalism and print technology. Imagined community referred to as the departure for constructionism in the study of ethnicity and nationalism. The basic understanding of ethnicity and nationhood as the process that is socially constructed that is as products of human thought and action. The emphasis of social construction is, above all, an ecological one, and that stands opposed to primodialist imagining of the world. By this, it becomes immediately apparent that those who label themselves as constructionist, and hold true to the constructivist ontology, go on to draw diverse conceptualizations of society and politics in spelling out what construction actually consist in. thus constructivists disagree on what should be properly considered constructivist, and what should be its political significance. Constructivism today resembles a national in formation, busily invoking traditions and preoccupying itself with its origins, purpose and identity.
Globalisation, Modernity and National Identity. BY Guibernau M. 1996
The major features of current era are the strengthening of globalizing processes. There is a global character of nation-state system in so far as the political arena that is based upon a division into sovereign unities that rule within clearly demarcated territories and have the capacity of acting at supranational levels. Globalization adds a significant new dimension to the life of individuals in so far as it widens their horizon and opens up new perspectives to the consequences of their actions. Intrinsic to gloabalisation is the dialectic of the local and the global, process by which local events are transformed and shaped under the influence of the extension of social connections stretching across tine and space. The extension of global cultural interrelatedness leads to persistence cultural homogeneity and cultural disorder. Globalsiation when applied to culture is unprecedented possibilities for expansion and reproduction of particular cultures that the development of new technologies has favoued. Nationalism relies heavily upon tradition in so far as it has common memories as one of its central features. Nationalism entails cultural resistance, and challenges modern societies by vindicating what is called identity politics. Modern societies produce some kind of the uncertainty and fragmentation that lie at their core. Ontological insecurity generates anxiety and jeopardizes the indivdiual’s capacity to relate to others. As result of globalization, Islamic fundamentalism denies relativism, and at the same time refuses to establishes a distinction between religious and political arena. The existence of a common enemy plays a key role in the construction of a group’s identity Islamic fundamental rejects the West and turns to its own doctrine and tradition in search of an alternative to secular nationalism, socialism and capitalism. The cultural and religious values defended by Islamic fundamentalism firmly regulate the dealt life of its followers. This allows the restoration of a sense of I identity and dignity that springs from within their own culture....