Water Sanitation in India Unicef

Topics: Drinking water, Maharashtra, Water quality Pages: 19 (2212 words) Published: February 8, 2013
Ganesh Kumar Nigam



Water and Sanitation



• Individual’s health and hygiene is largely dependent on adequate availability of safe drinking water, access to improved sanitation and better hygienic practices. • Water and sanitation-related diseases, despite being preventable, still remains one of the most significant child health problems worldwide and reasons for malnutrition.

• Drinking water facility is available in all the 98,098 habitations. • 76,944 (78%) habitations have 100% population coverage, which is very high than the national average (70.82%).
• However, there are 9,751 (10%) habitations where more than half of the population is yet to be covered.

• Government of India runs two flagship programmes, National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP) and Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC), to provide safe drinking water and sanitation facility to all. NRDWP also focuses on sustainability of water availability and quality of water.

Percentage of habitations with 100% population coverage in
rural areas by districts, June, 2010

Access to drinking water– Rural areas, Maharashtra,
June 2010
• Information on access to water facility is available only for rural areas. • A Habitation58 is a unit to provide drinking water facilities. In Maharashtra, there are 98,098 habitations.

No. of districts


• Status of habitations by population coverage : (As on June, 2010).

Urban Area


Less than 60%






More than 80%


National average: 70.82 %
State average: 78.44 %
Highest: 93.55 % Gadchiroli
Source : www.ddws.nic.in

Lowest: 40.14 % Jalgaon

• Significant disparities exist among districts in terms of habitations with 100% population coverage.
• Aurangabad and Amravati divisions are still water stressed.


trends in using different water sources


trends in using safe drinking water sources 59
(tap/hand pump/ tube well)
Comparison of Maharashtra and India

Comparison of rural and urban areas, Maharashtra

Source : NSSO 49th, 58th and 65th round survey reports

• There has been a steady increase of usage of hand pumps and tube wells in rural areas.
• Sharp increase in usage of taps after 2002 in rural areas. • Use of wells for drinking water has declined over the compared time period. • Use of bottled water has started mostly in urban areas.

• Impressive progress has been made in rural areas during the last 30 years, specially between 1981 and 1991, in Maharashtra.
• Rural and urban disparity is reducing at both national and state levels. • Status of both India and Maharashtra are almost at same level with reference to usage of safe drinking water sources.


Percentage of households by using improved and
unimproved drinking water sources60, 2008-09

Percentage of households by using different drinking water
sources, 2008-09


Source : NSSO 65th round survey report and calculation based by using JMP definition

• 90.5 % households in Maharashtra use improved drinking water sources which is slightly lower than the national average (91.9%).
• Percentage of households using improved drinking water sources is slightly higher in urban areas as compared to rural areas.

Source : NSSO 65th round survey report

• There is a rural and urban disparity in usage of various drinking water sources. • While in rural areas only 56.9% households are using taps, in urban areas the proportion is 88.9%.
• One-tenth of rural households still using unprotected wells.


Percentage of households by type of use, 2008-09

Source : NSSO 65th round survey report

• Significant disparity exists between rural and urban areas. • While in urban areas 55.4% households use drinking water source exclusively for their own selves, in rural areas 69% households share with...
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