Water Quality

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1.0 WATER QUALITY

LESSON OUTCOME:

* To identify the physical water quality parameters such as suspended solids, turbidity, color, taste and odor and temperature. * To calculate the solids parameter
* To identify the chemical water quality parameters such as total dissolved solid, alkalinity and hardness * To calculate the water alkalinity and hardness
* To demonstrate the biological water quality parameters such as pathogens and indicators

Water Quality Parameter
1.1 Physical Parameter: Physical parameters define those characteristics of water that …

* ..
* ..
* ..
* ..
* ..

1.2.1 Measurement of TOTAL SOLID (mg/L)
* Evaporate …

* The total solid is expressed as milligrams per litre (mg/L).

1.2.2 Measurement of SUSPENDED SOLID (mg/L)
* Weigh a filter paper on an ..
* Place the filter paper on the filter apparatus.
* Apply .. and filter..

* Dry the filter paper in ..

* After 1 hour,..

* Repeat the drying cycle until..

Total Suspended Solid (mg/L) =

To TOTAL SOLID (mg/L) =

EXAMPLE: refer pg 16 (Howard S.Peavy, Environmental Engineering)

EXERCISE: refer pg 57 (2-4, 2-5, 2-6,2-7)
1.2 Chemical Parameter
* ..
Definition:

* ..
Definition:

* ..
* Metal
* ..
* ..
* Non-metal

* ..

* ..

* Carbonate
* Non-carbonate

Carbonate Hardness| Non-carbonate hardness|
| |
| |

1.3 Measurement of ALKALINITY and HARDNESS

A. mg/L unit
mgL = SUBSTANCEMEDIUM
1PART1,000,000 =

Water density, ρ =

B. meq/L unit

C. mg/L as CaCO3

mg/L as CaCO3 =

Equaivalent mass for CaCO3 =

EXAMPLE 1:

EXAMPLE 2: refer Example 2-5 (pg 30)
EXERCISE: refer pg 57-60(2-14, 2-18, 2-19, 2-20, 2-21,2-27, 2-34) 1.4 Biological Parameter
* Micro-organisms that bring diseases are called..

* The presence of pathogenic micro-organisms is shown by indicator micro-organisms

1.5.3 Pathogen Organisms
* ..
* ..
* ..
1.5.4 Indicator Organism :Their presence shows that pollution has occurred and suggests the TYPE and LEVEL of pollution.

1.5.5 Indicator organism properties (pg 50)
* ..
* ..
* ..
* ..
* ..
Typical indicators used are coliform groups

1.5.6 Coliforms groups: -
* ..
* ..

1.5.7 Biological parameter can be measured using
* Membrane Filtration Method
* Most probable Number

1.5.8.1 Measurement of Biological parameter: Membrane Filtration Method * can be determine by …

* The bacteria are retained on the filter then ..

* After incubation, ..

General formula:

EXAMPLE:
Assume that filtration of volumes 75, 25, 10, 3 and 1 mL produced FC colony counts of 210, 89, 35, 11 and 5, respectively. What is the FC density for the sample?

1.5.8.2 Measurement of Biological parameter: Most Probable Number (MPN) Thomas Equation =

EXAMPLE:
A bacterial analysis for a surface water yielded the following results for the standard confirmed test for total coliform. Determine the coliform density (MPN) using the MPN tables and the Thomas equation.

EXAMPLE :pg 53 (2-10)
EXERCISE: pg 61 (2-56)

1.5 Water Quality Requirement

Water Quality Index System for Rivers in Malaysia
- for five designated classes of beneficial uses

WQI Based on DoE Formula
* The parameters chosen for the WQI based on the DoE's formula are ..

* The formula used :

ASSIGNMENT: Find a set of river data and determine the Water Quality Index(WQI).Give your explanation on the WQI result.
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