* To identify the physical water quality parameters such as suspended solids, turbidity, color, taste and odor and temperature. * To calculate the solids parameter
* To identify the chemical water quality parameters such as total dissolved solid, alkalinity and hardness * To calculate the water alkalinity and hardness
* To demonstrate the biological water quality parameters such as pathogens and indicators
Water Quality Parameter
1.1 Physical Parameter: Physical parameters define those characteristics of water that …
1.2.1 Measurement of TOTAL SOLID (mg/L)
* Evaporate …
* The total solid is expressed as milligrams per litre (mg/L).
1.2.2 Measurement of SUSPENDED SOLID (mg/L)
* Weigh a filter paper on an ..
* Place the filter paper on the filter apparatus.
* Apply .. and filter..
* Dry the filter paper in ..
* After 1 hour,..
* Repeat the drying cycle until..
Total Suspended Solid (mg/L) =
To TOTAL SOLID (mg/L) =
EXAMPLE: refer pg 16 (Howard S.Peavy, Environmental Engineering)
EXERCISE: refer pg 57 (2-4, 2-5, 2-6,2-7)
1.2 Chemical Parameter
Carbonate Hardness| Non-carbonate hardness|
1.3 Measurement of ALKALINITY and HARDNESS
A. mg/L unit
mgL = SUBSTANCEMEDIUM
Water density, ρ =
B. meq/L unit
C. mg/L as CaCO3
mg/L as CaCO3 =
Equaivalent mass for CaCO3 =
EXAMPLE 2: refer Example 2-5 (pg 30)
EXERCISE: refer pg 57-60(2-14, 2-18, 2-19, 2-20, 2-21,2-27, 2-34) 1.4 Biological Parameter
* Micro-organisms that bring diseases are called..
* The presence of pathogenic micro-organisms is shown by indicator micro-organisms
1.5.3 Pathogen Organisms
1.5.4 Indicator Organism :Their presence shows that pollution has occurred and suggests the TYPE and LEVEL of pollution.
1.5.5 Indicator organism properties (pg 50)
Typical indicators used are coliform groups
1.5.6 Coliforms groups: -
1.5.7 Biological parameter can be measured using
* Membrane Filtration Method
* Most probable Number
18.104.22.168 Measurement of Biological parameter: Membrane Filtration Method * can be determine by …
* The bacteria are retained on the filter then ..
* After incubation, ..
Assume that filtration of volumes 75, 25, 10, 3 and 1 mL produced FC colony counts of 210, 89, 35, 11 and 5, respectively. What is the FC density for the sample?
22.214.171.124 Measurement of Biological parameter: Most Probable Number (MPN) Thomas Equation =
A bacterial analysis for a surface water yielded the following results for the standard confirmed test for total coliform. Determine the coliform density (MPN) using the MPN tables and the Thomas equation.
EXAMPLE :pg 53 (2-10)
EXERCISE: pg 61 (2-56)
1.5 Water Quality Requirement
Water Quality Index System for Rivers in Malaysia
- for five designated classes of beneficial uses
WQI Based on DoE Formula
* The parameters chosen for the WQI based on the DoE's formula are ..
* The formula used :
ASSIGNMENT: Find a set of river data and determine the Water Quality Index(WQI).Give your explanation on the WQI result.