Water Crisis

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Venue : Presidency Girls Hr. Sec. School ,
Egmore, Chennai
NATIONAL SCIENCE SEMINAR
WATER CRISIS ON THE EARTH
PROBLEMS AND REMEDIES
Submitted by
A. NAVEEN ANTO,
Sri Jayendra Golden Jubilee School,
Sankarnagar - 627 357,
Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu.
Date : August 27, 2008
CONTENT
♦ INTRODUCTION
♦ WHAT DO WE MEAN BY WATER CRISIS?
♦ WHAT CAUSES & TRIGGERS THE WATER CRISIS
♦ IMPACTS OF WATER CRISIS
♦ REMEDIES FOR WATER CRISIS
♦ CONCLUSION
WATER CRISIS ON THE EARTH
PROBLEMS AND REMEDIES
INTRODUCTION
Water the elixir of life feeds the planets ecosystem, flows through our bodies and buildings connects humans through a source of life.
Even this 1%, which is renewed by hydrological cycle is put to severe stress due to overuse and pollution. The world is today facing a serious overall scarcity of water on one hand and on the other hand the available surface and ground water is becoming unsafe for consumption due to several agricultural, domestic and industrial pollution.

70% of our planets surface is water, yet only 2.5% is
fresh water. The remaining 97.5% is salt water, out of
the 2.5%, 1% alone is available for human consumption.
WHAT CAUSES & TRIGGERS THE WATER CRISIS
Water crisis on earth has been caused by
♦ HIGH POPULATION GROWTH
♦ RAPID URBANIZATION
♦ EVER INCREASING DEMAND FOR COMPETING USES LIKE
More than one billion people have no access to safe
drinking water. It is estimated that by 2025, more than
half of the World’s Population will be facing water
vulnerability. India is one among the countries which
face a severe water stress. This quantitative and
qualitative water stress is known as water crisis.
• DRINKING
• AGRICULTURE
• INDUSTRY AND
• ENERGY WHICH HAS NOT BEEN BALANCED WITH PROPER
EFFORTS FOR WATER MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION
POPULATION GROWTH
In year 2000 the world population was 6.2 billion
compared with a mere 2.5 billion in 1951.
DEPLETION OF AQUIFERS
The ground water and surface water potential on earth
is facing a serious threat of permanent loss due to
CLIMATE CHANGE
Global warming leading to climate change will have a significant impact on water resources as this will greatly affect the hydrological cycle. Both droughts and floods may become more frequent.
According to a UN climate report, the Himalayan glaciers that are the sources of Asia’s biggest rivers like Ganges, Indus, Brahmaputra, Yangtze, etc. could disappear by 2035 as temperatures rise. In India alone, the Ganges provides water for drinking and farming for more than 50 crore. This growth in population has brought about a serious

decline in the per capita availability of water.
♦ DEPLETION OF AQUIFERS
♦ GLOBAL WARMING AND
♦ CLIMATE CHANGE
Water tables are falling due to erection of tube wells and over pumping of water. Depletion of aquifers without proper re-charge will result in subsidence of aquifers and permanent loss of
ground water potential. Similarly in coastal cities like Mexico City, Bangkok, Manila, Beijing and Chennai, over pumping of
ground water has led to penetration of sea water into aquifers which makes the ground water salty, brackish and unusable.
IMPACTS
Water crisis leads to
• FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL CRISIS
• HEALTH CRISIS
• ENVIRONMENTAL CRISIS AND LOSS OF BIO DIVERSITY
• WATER POLITICS AND SOCIAL CRISIS
FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL CRISIS
An estimated 42,000 people die every week due to contaminated water. Malaria, Diarrhoea, Leptospirosis, Japanese encephalitis, Jaundice, Typhoid, which cause millions of preventable deaths in third world countries are associated with contamination of drinking water. Black foot disease, peripheral nuritis, hyperkeratosis, skin and lung cancer, blue baby syndrome, itai itai and mental derangement are associated with arsenic, nitrates, mercury, cadmium and lead toxins in water.

Environmental crisis leads to extinction of fish species and coral reef formation. Upland ecosystems are at risk due to diminishing of fresh water flow in upstream...
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