1. Warehouses—Introduction , types
A warehouse is a commercial building for storage of goods. It has loading docks to load and unload goods from trucks. Warehouses are used by manufacturers, importers, exporters, wholesalers, transport businesses, customs, etc. A warehouse has cranes and forklifts for moving goods.
Multi modal transport entails movement of goods in containers by multiple modes of transportation. A container may shift from road to rail to sea and back to rail or road in its journey from origin to destination. So where does a warehouse come into the picture? A warehouse comes into the picture when we extend the concept of multimodal transportation to Logistics, that is, when we get inside the container to the cargo and provide wherewithal for various processes , other than manufacturing, that need to be undertaken on the cargo . A warehouse may therefore be required for a variety of purposes. Each yields a warehouse of a different type, with different design specifications.
The cargo inside a container is custom bonded , in case the consignment is meant for import or export . In such a case, customs will require a warehouse where they can examine the cargo . A warehouse of this kind is designed to cater to cargo contained in a standard ISO container . The size is determined by the quantum of business planned to be transacted . The floor height , numbers of docks, slots inside the warehouse are all attuned to custom bonded cargo arriving and leaving in containers . In fact, portions of the warehouse have to be segregated for exports , imports and bonded cargo ( long stay cargo that is cleared by customers in parts so that customs duty gets paid in parts rather than in one go ) . A warehouse of this type is governed by the Indian Customs Act 1962 .
Section 45 of the Act specifies as follows : Restrictions on custody and removal of imported goods. – 1. Save as otherwise provided in any law for the time being in force, all imported goods unloaded in a customs area shall remain in the custody of such person as may be approved by the Commissioner of Customs until they are cleared for home consumption or are warehoused or are transshipped in accordance with the provisions of Chapter VIII. 2. The person having custody of any imported goods in a customs area, whether under the provisions of sub-section (1) or under any law for the time being in force, - a) Shall keep a record of such goods and send a copy thereof to the proper officer; b) Shall not permit such goods to be removed from the customs area or otherwise dealt with, except under and in accordance with the permission in writing of the proper officer. 3. Notwithstanding anything contained in any law for the time being in force, if any imported goods are pilfered after unloading thereof in a customs area while in the custody of a person referred to in sub-section (1), that person shall be liable to pay duty on such goods at the rate prevailing on the date of delivery of an import manifest or, as the case may be, an import report to the proper officer under section 30 for the arrival of the conveyance in which the said goods were carried.
Further Section 57 also pertains to warehousing . It states as follows: * At any warehousing station, the Assistant Commissioner of Customs or Deputy Commissioner of Customs, may appoint public warehouses wherein dutiable goods may be deposited
Essentially such warehouses are used for transit, consolidation of Less than container load ( LCL ) cargo and bonding. They do not cater to distribution or act as districentres.
The second basic type of warehouses are those that act as districentres . Typically , they are non bonded . They may receive cargo in containers ( or as break bulk in trucks) . They receive cargo , store the same before the same is transported to various centres for final...