Experiment 5: VARIATIONS IN PROPERTIES
IN THE THIRD ROW OF THE PERIODIC TABLE
The periodic table is a tabular display of the chemical elements, organized on the basis of their atomic numbers and chemical properties. Elements are presented in increasing atomic number. Elements with the same number of valence electrons are kept together in groups, such as the halogens and the noble gases. Due to this, there are gaps that form four distinct rectangular areas or blocks. The f-block is not included in the main table, but rather is usually floated below, as an inline f-block would make the table impractically wide. Using periodic trends, the periodic table can help predict the properties of various elements and the relations between properties. As a result, it provides a useful framework for analyzing chemical behavior, and is widely used in chemistry and other sciences.
To study the variations of the properties of the elements in the third row of the periodic table, it is a must to see its physical as well as acid-base properties. The first to test were the physical properties of each element: its physical state, color and luster. Luster is the state or quality of shining by reflecting light on the element causing it to sparkle.
For the acid-base properties, sample of 1 mL for aqueous solution of the potassium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid and the oxides of each sample element was placed in a spot plate and added 2 drops of litmus indicator to each one. Observe the color change.
(Please see attached)
TREATMENT OF RESULTS
Elements that show metallic properties in the third row of the periodic table of elements are sodium (Na) and aluminum (Al). Those of magnesium (Mg), silicon (Si), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), chlorine (Cl), and argon (Ar) exhibit nonmetallic properties. The color of the litmus indicator changes as it combines with acidic and basic solutions. To indicate as to what property the element has, the...
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