Vals Framework

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A Study of the Impact of Values and Lifestyles (VALS) on Brand Loyalty with Special Reference to English Newspapers* C.Anandan1, M.Prasanna Mohanraj 2 & S.Madhu3
Abstract Indian Newspaper Industry is witnessing high growth, despite the rise of the Internet and of telecommunications as viable sources of information. Earlier all the newspapers thought that the opportunity for them was within their own geographical area. But, in coming years publishers will be spending over Rs.1000 crores to invade into other’s territories. Unless the publishers recognize the preferences of readers, it would be unlikely that they would succeed in winning the hearts of the customers. This research makes an attempt to recognize the preferences and segment the readers of the English newspapers based on their psychographic profiles by using VALS. VALS is a way of viewing people on the basis of their attitudes, needs, wants, beliefs and demographics. This research also analyzes the influence of psychographic factors on brand loyalty based on Brand loyalty scale and suggests the psychographic segments to be targeted by the brands to sustain in the competitive Market environment. Different types of market dominance strategies for various market positions are also explored.



Indian newspaper industry is witnessing high growth. Earlier, all newspaper owners thought that opportunity was only within their own geographical area. This situation is changing and publishers are spending thousands of crores to * 1. 2. 3.

invade each other’s territories. The newspaper market is bound to grow. New brands are coming into different territories. Unless the publishers recognise the preferences of readers, they would not be in a position to win the hearts of the customers.

Received January 30, 2006, Revised August 8, 2006. Director, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Institute of Textile Management, Coimbatore, e-mail: & Lecturer in Bharathidasan Institute of Management (BIM), Tiruchirapalli, e-mail: & Business Analyst in Satyam Computer Services Ltd at Chennai, e-mail:


Vilakshan, XIMB Journal of Management

When looking for a newspaper, people are interested in papers which correspond to their beliefs and with which they can identify themselves. This study makes an attempt at recognize the preferences and the profiles of readers of English newspapers. Defining the profile of the readers by looking beyond the demographic factors will assist the newspapers to design their marketing strategies in a much better way. This is how study into values and life styles becomes relevant. 1.1 Values And Lifestyles (VALS)

VALS is a way of viewing people on the basis of their attitudes, needs, wants, beliefs and demographics. The VALS program was created by the SRI International in 1978 in an attempt to understand people’s personality through their behaviours amid the changing values and lifestyles in 1970’s. VALS uses psychology to segment people according to their distinct personality traits.(see Figure -1) Schiffmen (2004) points out that VALS was redefined to maximize its ability to predict consumer behaviour in 1989.By using psychology to analyze and predict consumer preferences and choices, the current VALS system creates an explicit link between personality traits and purchase behaviour. The system identifies current and future opportunities by segmenting the consumer marketplace on the basis of the personality traits that drive consumer behaviour. VALS applies in all phases of the marketing process, from new-product development and entry-stage targeting to communications strategy and advertising.

The basic tenet of VALS is that people express their personalities through their behaviours. VALS reflects a real-world pattern that explains the relationship between personality traits and consumer behaviour. VALS...
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