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Gottlob Frege

Born: 8 Nov 1848 in Wismar, Mecklenburg-Schwerin (now Germany) Died: 26 July 1925 in Bad Kleinen, Germany

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Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (1848-1925) was a German mathematician, logician, and philosopher who worked at the University of Jena. Frege essentially reconceived the discipline of logic by constructing a formal system which, in effect, constituted the first ‘predicate calculus’. In this formal system, Frege developed an analysis of quantified statements and formalized the notion of a ‘proof’ in terms that are still accepted today. Frege then demonstrated that one could use his system to resolve theoretical mathematical statements in terms of simpler logical and mathematical notions. One of the axioms that Frege later added to his system, in the attempt to derive significant parts of mathematics from logic, proved to be inconsistent. Nevertheless, his definitions (of the predecessor relation and of the concept of natural number) and methods (for deriving the axioms of number theory) constituted a significant advance. To ground his views about the relationship of logic and mathematics, Frege conceived a comprehensive philosophy of language that many philosophers still find insightful. However, his lifelong project, of showing that mathematics was reducible to logic, was not successful. * played a crucial role in the emergence of modern logic and analytic philosophy. Frege’s logical works were revolutionary, and are often taken to represent the fundamental break between contemporary approaches and the older, Aristotelian tradition. He invented modern quantificational logic, and created the first fully axiomatic system for logic, which was complete in its treatment of propositional and first-order logic, and also represented the first treatment of higher-order logic. In the philosophy of mathematics, he was one of the most ardent proponents of logicism, the thesis that mathematical truths are logical truths, and presented influential criticisms of rival views such as psychologism and formalism. His theory of meaning, especially his distinction between the sense and reference of linguistic expressions, was groundbreaking in semantics and the philosophy of language. He had a profound and direct influence on such thinkers as Russell, Carnap and Wittgenstein. Frege is often called the founder of modern logic, and he is sometimes even heralded as the founder of analytic philosophy.

F. H. Bradley
AKA Francis Herbert Bradley

Born: 30-Jan-1846
Birthplace: Clapham, England
Died: 18-Sep-1924
Location of death: Oxford, England
Cause of death: unspecified
Gender: Male
Race or Ethnicity: White
Occupation: Philosopher
Nationality: England
Executive summary: Appearance and Reality
British philosopher of the Absolute Idealist school, which argued that since we can only know our ideas directly the universe consists, for us, only of ideas. Although Bradley wrote widely on logic as well as the philosophy of history and psychology, he is best known today for his work in the area of ethics, epistemology, and metaphysical philosophy, the latter of which has been compared in structure to quantum mechanics. His best known works include Ethical Studies (1876), Principles of Logic (1883), and Appearance and Reality (1893). Bradley's teachings had a marked impact on the work of T. S. Eliot. Father: Charles Bradley (prominent Evangelical preacher)

Mother: Emma Linton (eight children)
Brother: A. C. Bradley (literary scholar)

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F. H. Bradley (1846–1924) was the most famous, original and philosophically influential of the British Idealists. These philosophers came to prominence in the closing decades of the nineteenth century, but their effect on British philosophy and society at large — and, through the positions of power attained by some of their pupils in the institutions of the British Empire, on much of the world — persisted...
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