Mitosis is a cellular process that replicates chromosomes and produces two identical nuclei in preparation for cell division, from the original cell two cells are derived, each of which possesses the same genetic material. Mitosis has five phases: interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. Interphase The DNA duplicates during interphase to prepare for mitosis. Chromosomes are not clearly discerned in the nucleus. Prophase Chromatin in the nucleus begins to condense and becomes visible in the light microscope as chromosomes. The nuclear membrane dissolves. Microtubules attach at the kinetochores and the chromosomes begin moving. Metaphase Spindle fibers align the chromosomes along the middle of the cell nucleus. This line is referred to as the metaphase plate. This organization helps to ensure that in the next phase, when the chromosomes are separated, each new nucleus will receive one copy of each chromosome. Anaphase the paired chromosomes separate at the kinetochores and move to opposite sides of the cell. Motion results from a combination of kinetochore movement along the spindle microtubules and through the physical interaction of polar microtubules. Telophase New membranes form around the daughter nuclei while the chromosomes disperse. These growth tissues are found principally in the roots, in the shoots and in the cambium. This experiment aims at observing cell multiplication in the root tip of a garlic root.
The purpose of this practical was to observe and identify under the light microscope the stages of mitosis division (interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase) by using tissue from root tips. The root tips were prepared before it was view under the light microscope, hydrochloric acid was added to the root tips in order to destroy the substances that unite the cells but it does not destroy the cell walls. Toluidine dye was used to make the root tips become more visible while viewing. The material was prepared...
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