1. A. Bladder Neck Obstruction – A condition in which the bladder neck does not open appropriately or completely during voiding. Symptoms caused by PBNO include storage symptoms (frequency, urgency, urge incontinence, nocturia) and voiding symptoms (decreased force of stream, hesitancy, incomplete emptying).
B. Hematuria – The presence of blood in the urine. Some things that can cause hematuria are cancer of the kidney or bladder, inflammation of the kidney, urethra, bladder, or prostate, polycystic kidney disease, and sickle cell disease.
C. Hydronephrosis – The swelling of one kidney due to a backup of urine. Symptoms include flank pain, abdominal mass, nausea and vomiting, urinary tract infection, fever, painful urination (dysuria), increased urinary frequency, and increased urinary urgency.
D. Hypospadias – A birth defect in which the opening of the urethra is on the underside of the penis. Symptoms include abnormal spraying of urine, having to sit down to urinate, and foreskin that makes the penis looks like it has a "hood".
E. Interstitial Cystitis – A painful condition due to inflammation of the tissues of the bladder wall, Symptoms include pain during intercourse, pelvic pain, urinary discomfort, urinary frequency (up to 60 times a day in severe cases), and urinary urgency.
F. Lithotomy – The surgical removal of a calculus, especially from the urinary tract.
G. Wilm’s Tumor – A rare kidney cancer that primarily affects children. Also known as nephroblastoma. The tumor doesn’t always cause signs and symptoms but some symptoms may be present such as abdominal swelling, an abdominal mass one can feel, abdominal pain, fever, and blood in the urine.
2. A. Catheterization – When a latex, polyurethane, or silicone tube known as a urinary catheter is inserted into a patient's bladder via the urethra. Catheterization allows the patient's urine to drain freely from the bladder for...