Understand the process and experience of dementia(DEM 301)

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UNIT 365

UNDERSTAND THE PROCESS AND EXPERIENCE OF DEMENTIA

1.UNDERSTAND THE NEUROLOGY OF DEMENTIA
1.1Describe a range of causes of dementia syndrome.
Dementia is a word used to describe a group of symptoms including memory loss, confusion , mood changes, and difficulty with day-to -day task. There are many causes of dementia wit Alzhaimer`s the most common. Alzhaimer`s disease-around 500.000 people in the UK have Alzhaimer`s.Scientists know that during Alzhaimer`s two abnormal proteins build in the brain. They form clumps called either "plagues" or "tangles". Theses plagues and tangles interfere with how brain cells work and communicate wih each other. The plagues are usually first seen in the area of the brain that makes new memories. Vascular dementia-second most common cause of dementia after Alzhaimer`s disease. It can occur when blood flow to the brain becomes reduced.Some people have Alzhaimer`s and Vasular dementia -called mixed dementia Vasular dementia is sometimes split into more specific types:

-stroke -related dementia . This includes multi-infarct dementia (MID), wich happens after a series of small strokes. It also includes dementia which happens after a stroke(called post-stroke dementia).

-subcortical vascular dementia( also called binswonger`s disease,small vessel disease related dementia or laccunar state). This is coused by changes to very small blood vessels in the brain. Vasular dementia is caused by a reduction in blood flow to the brain. Blood carries essential oxygen and nourishment to the brain and, without it, brain cells can die. The network of blood vessels that carries blood around the body is called the vascular system. There are a number of different ways that blood vessels in the brain can become damaged , leading to vascular dementia. Stroke related-when part of the brain become damaged following a stroke -may caused difficulties in moving, problem wit coordination, speech and sight depending on the part of brain affected. If a stroke causes memory loss, and problem with attention, then the person may be diagnosed with post- stroke dementia. Similar damage may be caused by small strokes in the brain(to small for a person to noticed-called multi -infarct dementia) Subcortical vascular dementia-this is caused by a series of small changes to blood vessels deep inside the brain. A person usually does not notice these changes but they can.over time , damage parts of brain that are important for attention, memory and language. Dementia with Lewy Bodies(DLB)-the third most common cause of dementia-is caused by small round clamps of protein that build up inside nerve cells in the brain. The proteins called alpha-symcbein and the spheres it forms are called Lewy bodies, after Dr. Frederick Lewy who first observed them.The protein clumps damage the way nerve cells work and communicate. The nerve cells that are affected by Lewy Bodies are in areas of the brain that control thinking, memory and movement. People with DBL can also show some changes in the brain which are typical for Alzhaimer`s ,samethimes making it dificult to discriminate between two condition. Fronto Temporal Dementia Pick`s disease- FID is caused by damage to cells in areas of brain called the frontal and temporal lobes. The frontal lobes regulate our personality, emotions and behaviour, as well as reasoning,planning and desision- making . The temporal lobes are involved in the understanding and production of language.(FTD- the brain shrinks in the frontal and temporal lobes. There is also a build up of specific proteins in these areas of the brain. These proteins can clump toghether and become toxic to brain cells, causing them to die.Three major protains identified in FT are called tan,TDP-43 and FUS. The reason for their build-up is not yet fully understood and research is ongoing. Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease(CJD)-CJD-form of dementia caused by prion disease. Prions are proteins which are found in mammals. When these...
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