Theory & Rhetoric
Uncertainty Reduction Theory
1). Witt, P., & Behnke, R. (2006). Anticipatory Speech Anxiety as a Function of Public Speaking Assignment Type. Communication Education, 55(2), 167-177. doi:10.1080/03634520600566074. * Research Questions:
-Why does public speaking generate anticipatory anxiety?
-Is public speaking anxiety dependent on assignment type?
-How can anticipatory public speaking anxiety be controlled? * Key Terms: Public Speaking, Speech Anxiety, State Anxiety, Trait Anxiety, Assignment Type * Thesis: Most individuals who enroll in communication courses do so in order to improve their presentational skills and to increase the enjoyment that they derive from their communication performances. * Theoretical Perspective:
-Uncertainty Reduction Theory
* Case Studies:
-185 undergrads in entry level communication performance course -171 undergrads in entry level communication performance course * Implications: Therapeutic Intervention, Pedagogical Application * Future Research Questions:
-Can anticipatory public speaking anxiety not only be controlled but eliminated? -Is there any method that can help change trait anxiety as easily as state anxiety? -How can a better understanding of trait anxiety help ease anticipatory anxiety? 2). Pratt, L., & Wiseman, R. (1999). Interrogative strategies and information exchange in computer-mediated communication. Communication Quarterly, 47(1), 46-66. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database. * Research Questions:
-Is there a difference between face-to-face communication and computer mediated communication? -How does age coincide with computer mediated communication? -Are different styles of computer mediated communication dependent on geographical location? * Key Terms: Uncertainty Reduction, Asynchronous Communication, Interrogative Strategies, Question Typologies, Content Analysis * Thesis: Results suggest that the interrogative strategies we engage in to achieve interpersonal connectedness are sometimes different in computer-mediated communication (CMC) and a new standard for transacting relational message exchange may be emerging. * Theoretical Perspective:
-Social Exchange Theory
* Case Studies:
-200 “epals” selected for content analysis of their emails to each other -316 messages analyzed between 10 pairs of “epals”
-People react differently to emails because they lack the requirement for an immediate response. -The shorter the time between a sent and read email will increase the chance of response. * Future Research Questions:
-Why do “epals” want to know about others attitudes and opinions? -Is the medium redefining the type of message we send?
- Is the quality of selective message construction found in asynchronous e-mail (Walther, 1996a) producing a new standard for interpersonal connectedness? 3). Goldsmith, D. (2001). A Normative Approach to the Study of Uncertainty and Communication. Journal of Communication, 51(3), 514. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database. * Research Questions:
-How can uncertainty reduction theory be applied outside of stranger to stranger interactions? -How do different communities treat uncertainty in communication? -What are the different levels of uncertainty in communication? * Key Terms: Frequency of Communication Behaviors, Level of Uncertainty, Level of Relational Qualities * Thesis: A normative approach entails a shift in focus from measuring level of uncertainty to examining multiple and potentially conflicting meanings of uncertainty, a shift from measuring communication behaviors to evaluating communication practices, and a shift from predicting what people will do to predicting and explaining the effectiveness and appropriateness of what they do in response of uncertainty. * Theoretical Perspective: