Umbilical Cord Thesis Proposal

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Chapter I

The newborn is a miracle of nature, the results of forty week of never to be equaled growth and development (Hamilton, 1998). Inside the uterus, the fetus grows into a tiny being capable of survival through the help of the mother. The fetus is fully dependent on the mother’s circulation for oxygen supply and nutrients through the umbilical cord. It is inside the womb that the body receives warmth and protection from the dangers of the outside world. Birth, according to Maslow (1998), is associated with most drastic changes that ever befall a human being. In extra uterine life, all functions of the body undergo a radical change and a sudden adjustment has to be made from a dark, warm fluid-filled environment to a strange world before him. After birth, the infant must learn to do the vital function by his own. More so, learn to initiate other processes that the human body performs. It is in this stage that a process of moving from total dependence to independence begins. However, the child will continue to rely on others for immediate care, physical health, psychological growth, mental stimuli and emotional support. The infant will be able to function effectively provided that he receives the utmost care from the caregivers around him. If the infant is to survive the neonatal period, three conditions are necessary: that he be in good physical condition, that he experiences a safe delivery and that he then receives good care (Marlow, 1998).it is the nurse's responsibility, as an essential caregiver to provide the infant with care, attend to his needs, maintain. And promote health by Preventing infection and complications. Backround of the Study

Care of the umbilical cord is one important by the newborn to survive neonatal period. The umbilical stump is an open wound (Smith,et al 1997) which may serve as a possible. portal of entry for microorganisms, most especially Clostridium Tetani, which accounts for 224 cases of Tetanus neonatorum admitted to Achmad Mochtar Hospital from January to December in 2009. Sixty five percent (65%) of this case came from achmad muchtar hospital, where this study was conducted, 2 % was noted (DOH, 1990). Disregard for asepsis in cord management frequently results to infection transmitted through the umbilical vessels. The researcher’s training in delivery room and nursery, both during her college days and during her work in the country and abroad enabled her to set about, the challenges in different cord care procedures. Efforts have been made towards the improvement of care, including the need to hasten the drying and separation process to ensure freedom from infection. Although compression and length of cord stump during the initial cord care is being done by several- health institutions up to the present, its effect on the drying process and length of time of cord separation has not been investigated yet. These observations motivated the researcher to conduct the study.

Conceptual Framework
The umbilical cord is the lifeline that links the embryo and the placenta. It extends from the umbilicus to the fetal portion of the placenta and is attached centrally. At tern, this light gray, smooth vascular attachment is 50 to 55 centimeters long, slightly longer than the fetus, and approximately 2 centimeters in diameter. The surface of the cord is composed of thin squamous epithelium and an extension of the skin of the fetus; however, it contains no pain receptors. The cord normally contains two umbilical arteries and one umbilical vein. The vein carries oxygenated blood to the fetus and the arteries return deoxygenated blood to the placenta. Frequently, these vessels are longer than the cord and consequently become coiled on themselves, giving the cord a lumpy appearance. They are supported by a loose connective tissue containing a cushioning mucoid material called wharton's jelly This prevents the kinking of the cord in utero and interferences with...
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