(aka, The ABC Model)
A lasting evaluation of an object.
– The way a consumer feels about an attitude object.
Object evaluations are generally unidirectional,
although ambivalence is possible.
– Consumer’s intent to do something in relation to an
– Thoughts a consumer has about an attitude object.
The ABC Attitude Model
– Attitude held due to object’s utility.
– Attitude stems from self-image protection.
– Attitude reflects consumer’s values and lifestyle.
– Attitude formed by consumer’s need to know
and understand the objects that they encounter.
Attitude Characteristics Examples
– Amount of like or dislike for an object.
– Ease of recall about an object from memory.
– Generally a function of time passage.
– How strongly an attitude is held.
“I like it a lot.”
“I can remember my attitude
“I’m sure I like it.”
“I’ve liked it for a long time
and will continue to like it.”
– Amount of time an attitude resonates.
“I’ll like it no matter what
anyone says about it.”
– How easily an object attitude can be changed.
Attitudes based on personal experience
tend to be stronger than attitudes based
on secondary information.
– Rationale behind experiential marketing.
Brand loyal consumers tend to hold strong
positive attitudes toward a brand and are
unwilling to abandon the product.
Mental processes used to solve problems or
cope with situations.
Iconic Rote (Low Involvement):
– Association between 2+ concepts without
conditioning, often through repetition.
Vicarious Modeling (Low/High Involvement):
– Observing outcomes of other people’s behaviours
and correspondingly adjusting own behaviour
Reasoning (High Involvement):
– Use of original thinking to restructure and
recombine both existing and new information to
form new perspectives.
CentralCentral-Route Processing (High-Effort):
(High– Object attitudes are based on conscious and
– Results in strong, easily accessible, and
confidently held attitudes.
PeripheralPeripheral-Route Processing (Low-Effort):
(Low– Object attitudes are not based on an elaborate
analysis, rather a low effort assessment.
– Consumer attitudes can be more easily changed.
Thoughts and Attitudes
Cognitive Response Model:
– Relates how a consumer’s thoughts affect their
attitude toward an object.
– Predicts how a consumer will respond to and
what attitude will develop toward a stimulus.
Possible Cognitive Responses:
– Support Argument.
– Source Derogations.
Illustration of the Dual Route Model:
Is the product
Is the endorser
No (Bad Fit)