Transportation and Society are two inseparable terms. Transportation is the movements of people and freight from one location to another. Transportation has influenced each of our choices about where to live, earn our livelihood; spend vacations, shop, or work. The tie between transportation and society is inescapable and we take it for granted and still cannot imagine a world without it. The very hugeness of the transportation system hides its interdependence with society. Transportation has had a huge effect on the settlements of the human civilization since olden times. It can be cited out with examples that most of the ancient settlements have taken place on the banks of major river junction for trade/transportation purpose. Eg: Mumbai (Port),Calcutta (Hubli) etc. As the size of a city grows the transportation technology plays an important role in the formation of the city and its suburbs. Other factors responsible maybe development of personal/public transport infrastructure and the income of the group of people settled around the city. Eg: A good public transportation in Mumbai compared to other major metropolitan cities in India has resulted in low private transport vehicles there. Not only people but transportation is hugely responsible for distribution and consumption of goods and services in the society. From the ancient world to modern times, the fortunes of nations hinged on their access to resources and markets. In the modern society all the major businesses and trades have been possible only through good means of transportation. Besides transportation also provides livelihood to many people as for instance Indian railway is one of the world’s largest employer. Transportation also takes up huge resource of the society like land resource, massive economic resource etc. India’s transport sector is large and diverse; it caters to the needs of 1.1 billion people. Transport is a major use of energy, and burns most of the world's petroleum. This creates air pollution, including nitrous oxides and particulates, and is a significant contributor to global warming through emission of carbon dioxide, for which transport is the fastest-growing emission sector. Transportation is thoroughly integrated into society, and its priorities and goals shift as the needs of society change. While history suggests that there has never been a civilization nor an age that did not rely on transportation, it also shows that the nature of that reliance has been very different from age to age and place to place. Virtually everything we do relies on transportation. Civilized society depends upon communication, organization, trade, surplus and specialization, security, and protection of personal freedoms. Transportation is intertwined with many of these components. Transportation determines our way of life.
Safety: Critical Issue in Transportation
The most important problem concerning highway/transportation professionals in India is that of highway safety. Ministry of Transport figures show that approximately 60,000 people died in road accidents in 1992. India has the dubious distinction of accounting for 6 percent of the world's road deaths while having just 1 percent of the world's vehicles.
While rich nations had been able to lower their death rates, these were sharply on the rise in the third world. The successes of other nations are partly the result of strategies such as stricter laws on safety belt use, extensive crackdowns on alcohol and drug-impaired driving, increased restrictions on teenage driving, and automated enforcement of traffic signals and speed limits. It said 90% of deaths on the world's roads occur in low and middle-income countries (21.5 and 19.5 per lakh of population, respectively) though they have just 48% of all registered vehicles. At least 13 people die every hour in road accidents in the country, the latest report of the National Crime...