Foundation degree in learning support
Tools for learning (FST 101)
Submission date 24TH January 2013
Student ID: 30044217
Page 3 Task 1: Tools for Learning
Page 6 Task 2: theories of learning part A and part B
Page 9 Appendix A
Page 11 Appendix B
Page 12 Referencing
Task 1: Tools for Learning
The issues relating to the nature nurture debate is possibly one of the oldest theory debates in psychology (Bee 2004). Whilst nature refers to an individual inherited or innate qualities, genes and traits nurture in contrast refers to personal experience, and the environment for example although an individual maybe genetically tall if childhood was a time of malnourishment this could result in being short due to failure in growth. Bee (2004) however suggests that children’s learning and development are due to the influences of both nature and nurture, as we grow our biology program is to learn our social and physical environment provides stimulation for this to be successful. This essay aims to consider two areas often debated in more in detail first language, second intelligence to identify how nature and nurture influence these. Chomsky (1965) Proposed that language is innate, skinner believed that language was learnt from other people that you spend most of your time with. Galton (1883) was convinced intellectual abilities were largely inherited and the tendency for a genius runs in the family, Jensen (2002) agreed with this taking it further reporting that intelligence is 80% inherited. Skinner (1957) for example suggested repetition and showing positive signs of encouragement are more likely to develop intellect and is evident in practice with lessons such as phonics which repeat letter sounds and formation in order that children can practice and repeat the sounds with adults using positive reinforcement to encourage the desired behaviours this is known as operant conditioning Skinner (1957). Speech like sounds that babies babble becomes learnt sounds which if not corrected will make a big impact on the child’s life as they will be unable to use language correctly. Chomsky (1965) However opposed Skinner (1957) theory as he believed individuals are born with an innate Language Acquisition Device (LAD) device that helps us to produce speech and the ability to understand grammar and language structure (Davenport, 1994). Within the setting parents of a 7 year old child I observed are very intellectual and encourage their child to participate in after school activities, often correcting their child to ensure her language and behaviours are correct, subsequently she is ahead of developmental norms suggesting her environment at home and school has supported this growth of intelligence on the other hand she can become distant in class and doesn’t seem to engage like the rest of the group her teachers know that she is capable but she seems to get bored of the subjects given very easily it seems she isn’t challenged enough or she isn’t getting the right positive reinforcement.
The nature nurture debate in relation to intelligence revolves around how intelligence is formed, either from a person’s genes and physiological attributes (nature), or from personal experiences and learnt through education and exposure to the world. Supporters of nurture argument suggest it is the quality of the child’s environment that results in their growth of intelligence (Beaver, 1999: 144). Those who find the nature argument more believable think that the child’s inheritance determines intellect (Beaver, 1999). See appendix B. Neurons mature when axons send messages and dendrites receive them to form synapses. On the other hand Galton (1883) was convinced that "intelligence must be bred, not trained". However Watson 1923, made a statement of
"Give me a dozen healthy infants & my own specific world to bring them up in, & I'll guarantee to take...