To What Extent Cognitive and Biological Factors Interact with Emotion (Ib Psychology)

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  • Topic: Emotion, Appraisal theory, Richard Lazarus
  • Pages : 2 (777 words )
  • Download(s) : 181
  • Published : April 6, 2013
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To what extent cognitive and biological factors interact in emotion. ( /22m) James and Lange proposed that the state our bodies’ are in effects the emotion we experience, however there is little difference in autonomic arousal between emotions so opposite as fear and joy. It is clear that an additional factor is needed to transform an ambiguous physiological state into a specific emotion. Schater and Singer theorize that this factor is cognition and that it works in conjunction with biological factors to create an emotion, this is called the two factor theory. Schater and Singer suggest that the strength of our physiological arousal determines the strength of the emotion e experience while the labeling we give as to where this arousal is coming from determines the particular emotion. Schater and Singer conducted an experiment in 1962 to test this theory. They gave 184 males an injection, ¾’s of the participants received an adrenaline injection while ¼ received a placebo injection of saline solution, the participants were then put into either a euphoric or anger condition where confederate would either play with the participant or irritate him whilst filling in a questionnaire. Those in the euphoric condition reported being happy and those in the anger condition were observed to be angry. From these results Schater and Singer concluded that with the same arousal state (adrenaline injection) they were able to induce different emotions in the participants (anger/euphoria) this illustrates that our cognitive labeling for our physiological arousal determines the nature of the emotion we feel, this shows that biological factors and cognition interact with emotion. Schater and Singers study shows that cognition plays a large role in creating emotion however the study itself has been criticized for several reasons: methodologically because the participants physiological arousal was measured in a very basic way (pulse rate) and because adrenalines influence...