Thermal Pollution

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THERMAL POLLUTION

It is one of the pollution that effects on living things and the environment badly. The definition of thermal pollution is the degradation of water quality by any process that changes ambient water temperature. A common cause of thermal pollution is the use of water as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufacturers. When water used as a coolant is returned to the natural environment at a higher temperature, the change in temperature decreases oxygen supply, and affects ecosystem composition. Urban runoff–stormwater discharged to surface waters from roads and parking lots–can also be a source of elevated water temperatures. When a power plant first opens or shuts down for repair or other causes, fish and other organisms adapted to particular temperature range can be killed by the abrupt change in water temperature known as "thermal shock."

* Effects of thermal pollution on the environment
There are several effects of thermal pollution
* The dissolved oxygen content of water is decreased as the solubility of oxygen in water is decreased high temperature * High temperature becomes a barrier for oxygen penetration into deep coldwaters. * Toxicity of pesticides, detergents and chemicals in the effluents increases with increase in temperature. * The composition of flora and fauna changes because the species sensitive to increase temperature due to thermal shock will be replaced by temperature tolerant species. * Metabolic activities of aquatic organisms increase at high temperature andrequire more oxygen level falls under thermal pollution. * Discharge of heated water near the shores can disturb spawning and can evenkill young fishes. * Fish migrations are affected due to formation of various thermal zones * Sudden and peroiodic increase in  temperature producing a thermal  effect * Distribution of organisms among major and minor communities. * Changes to reproductive powers and increased susceptibility to disease * production of heat shock proteins for thermotolerance.

* Bio indicators are the first to show the effects.
* Decrease in productivity of the water body .
* Economic and environmental damage

                        
* Effects of thermal pollution on the
living things

All plant and animal species that live in water are adapted to temperatures within a certain range. When water in an area warms more than they can tolerate, species that cannot move, such as rooted plants and shellfish, will die. Species that can move, such as fish, will leave the area in search of cooler conditions, and they will die if they can not find them. Typically, other species, often less desirable, will move into the area to fill the vacancy. Warm water

Warm water are elevated temperature typically decreases the level of dissolved oxygen (DO) in water. The decrease in levels of DO can harm aquatic animals such as fish, amphibians and copepods. Thermal pollution may also increase the metabolic rate of aquatic animals, as enzyme activity, resulting in these organisms consuming more food in a shorter time than if their environment were not changed. An increased metabolic rate may result in food source shortages, causing a sharp decrease in a population. Changes in the environment may also result in a migration of organisms to another, more suitable environment, and to in-migration of fishes that normally only live in warmer waters elsewhere. This leads to competition for fewer resources; the more adapted organisms moving in may have an advantage over organisms that are not used to the warmer temperature. As a result one has the problem of compromising food chains of the old and new environments. Biodiversity can be decreased as a result. Elevated temperature typically decreases the level of dissolved oxygen in water. This can harm aquatic animals such as fish,amphibians and other aquatic organisms. Thermal pollution may also increase the metabolic rate of...
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