DOKUZ EYLÜL UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF BUSINESS DEPARTMENT OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
| USA and Arab spring
The role of US and mass media in uprisings in Arab world
Zulfiya Yussupova 2012801543
IR master degree
The Arab Spring is revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests that began in the Arab world December 18, 2010. Revolutions in Tunisia and Egypt, civil war in Libya, which led to the fall of the regime, civil uprisings in Bahrain, Syria and Yemen, mass protests in Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Morocco and Oman, and minor protests in Kuwait, Lebanon, Mauritania, Saudi Arabia, Sudan and Western Sahara. Clashes on the border of Israel in May 2011 have also been inspired by the local Arab spring. Each country has its own uprisings story. To understand the dynamic of the uprisings first we need to be aware of the history of it. Here is some of the most important facts: 1. Tunis
Trader’s suicide was like a symbolic start of the uprisings. The gay burned himself in protest against humiliation by the police and bad conditions of life. Demonstrations spread to neighboring cities leading to repressions. But response from Ben Ali – the former president of Tunisia was really slow. Repressions increased but then receded by January 2011, Ben Ali fled to Saudi Arabia, and within days temporal government was established. Ben Ali was tried in absentia, and new president was Beji Caid Essebsi 2. Egypt.
Protests spread in Cairo and throughout the country. After “day of rage” on 28 January. On 29 January president Hosni Mubarak announced the new government. Also on 1 February he said that he will not contest in elections - this actions calm down a little rebels, but then on 11 February Mubarak resigned and transfer his powers to the military. Six months later he was run on trial 3. Libya
Few days arter Mubarak’s fall protests again Qaddafi broke out in Benghazi and quickly spread to the rest cities. UN Security Council sanctioned military intervention by NATO from March. And after months of war Qaddafi’s regime was fell down and he himself was killed on 20 October 4. Bahrein
The protests in Bahrain started on 14 February, and were initially aimed at achieving greater political freedom and respect for human rights; they were not intended to directly threaten the monarchy. The protests were largely peaceful until a pre-dawn raid by police on 17 February to clear protestors from Pearl Roundabout in Manama, in which police killed 7 protesters. Following the raid, some protesters began to expand their aims to a call for the end of the monarchy. Then king Hamad invited Gulf Cooperation Council to the country and declared a state of emergency. 5. Yemen
Following Ben Ali’s removal in Tunisia small-scale demonstrations demanded President Ali Saleh’s removal. And after Mubarak’s fall month later protests grew up again now being led by a new group of youth and civil society. They acted independent of the formal political opposition parties, and they had demanded reforms rather than Saleh’s overthrow. Saleh used combination of repressions, counter-mobilization, economic enticements, and promises of political compromise and reform. Injured in attack he fled to Saudi Arabia then returned and agreed to hand over power but will continue to be a political player, particularly as his family retains control in the military and security apparatus. 6. Syria.
Uprising started in March, and Bashar’s regime reacted really quickly by repressions . Actually Asad thought that nothing is threatening to his regime because he don’t have disagreements with opposition, and the main questions concerning development of state are being...
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