The role of Alan Turing in the history of computing

Alan Mathison Turing was born on 23 June 1912, Paddington, London. He was a true pioneer in computer science and if it were not for this man, no one would probably be typing an essay based on him on a modern computer. He is renowned for his passion of mathematics and the invention of the Turing machine/test, breaking the German enigma code during World War One, and for making the first automated computing machine (the ACE).

At an early age he was sent to preparatory school by his parents, he attended these until enrolling at Sherbourne in 1926. His teachers there were surprised to find him working through the long way for the answers to questions, after Sherbourne Turing enrolled at King’s College where he became a mathematics scholar in 1931 where he began his studies in maths and logistics. He was elected at King’s and won the Smith’s award in 1936 for a paper he wrote on the “Gaussian error function”, this is when he began work to develop The Turing Machine.(Copeland, 2004) But later in 1936 he moved to the United States to study at Princeton for two years where he studied the theory of computation and in 1937 presented a paper called “On computable numbers, with an application to the “Entscheidungs problem” and soon to challenge David Hilbert’s three questions put forward to the best of the mathematical minds, which were; Was maths complete? Was maths constant?, was maths decidable? (Hodges, 1992; Copeland 2004).

Though his work on the Entscheidungs problem he began working on to define what a method was, and through that he came up with the Turing machine theory which can be said to be a mechanical process that was able to perform all the operations a person working with a logical system would be able to perform this theory compares human thought processes to that of a machine, which in the Turing machine theory are categorized as terms of inputs, outputs and machine states. The Turing machine is a...

...AlanTuring: The Father of Modern ComputingAlanTuring, a British mathematician who is well known for deciphering the code made by German Enigma machines in WWII. His contributions to mathematics, cryptanalysis, computer science, cognitive science, Artificial Intelligence, and Artificial Life are why he is commonly referred to as ‘the father of modern computing’(Copeland). He created the idea of the modern computer that we have today.
Alan Mathison Turing was born on June 23, 1912 in London. While attending prep school he excelled in Mathematics and science. He also enjoyed English and Latin. He would become bored with subjects that didn’t interest him. He would also start his ideas from scratch and even expand on them without using any prior work from others. He branched out and studied complicated theories from Einstein on his own.
In 1931, he enrolled in King’s College where he studied the possibilities of computing and graduated in 1934. At Cambridge is where his theory for the Turing machine came about and it was capable of carrying out all possible computations. His results are in “On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem”, which was the mathematical problem of decidability. This idea is probably his most notable work. This eventually led to the idea thatcreated the modern computer....

...ALANTURINGAlanTuring is a brilliant British mathematician and one of the leading best scientists in the 20th century. He is the “Father of Modern Computer” and “Artificial Intelligence”. His not famous or well known outside scientific circles during his lifetime because his crucial work was considered the Top secret until the late 1970s. He became the center of media attention when Queen Elizabeth II granted him a Royal Pardon on December 23, 2013.
He was also the one who cracked the German Enigma during World War II that ‘saves countless lives’ according to British Prime Minister - David Cameron. Turing was arrested in 1952 for Homosexuality, and tried and convicted of ‘gross indecency’. During 1950s, Homosexuality was a crime and Turing was given a choice between prison and chemical castration. He choose the chemical castration – which involve a series of estrogen injections for one year. He received a ‘treatment’ for his disorder, but two years later, he was found dead of an apparent suicide. He was 41 years old at that time.
BRIEF BIOGRAPHY/HISTORY:
He was born on June 23, 1912 in London, England with a well-to-do middle class family. His parents had met and married in India. Alan’s father is a British member of the Indian Civil Service and spent most of his life abroad. When Alan was about one year old, his mother followed her...

...The pioneer of computer science, AlanTuring
Introduction
Alan Mathison Turing(1912-1954) is one of the most intelligent scientists in the world, who is not only famous as a war savor but also a computer scientist. During the Second World War, Turing successfully cracked the German Enigma ciphers and turned the scale of the war, saving thousands of livings. Thanks to the celebration of Turing’s centenary in 2012, nowadays, the name of AlanTuring is universally known as the pioneer of computer science and the pioneer of artificial intelligence worldwide while his achievements also involve in mathematics, logistic, cryptanalysis and philosophy. The A.M. Turing Award, named after AlanTuring, represents the most valuable and prestigious prize of computer science community and also is known as the “Nobel Prize of computing”, which now is financially supported by Google.
Although there are several disagreements about the Turing’s title ‘Father of Computer’, due to the fact that Turing did not technically invent a real machine or get involved in any process of it. However, as far as I am concerned, even if it was pure theory of computer, AlanTuring had already changed the world. Two articles represented and finally determined the status of AlanTuring...

...Alanturings enigma code breaker was a very important part of history. First I explain the enigma machine. The enigma made by germans was a method of sending codes across to other enigmas, it was a very difficult code to break as there were many settings included allowing for many combinations. There was 60 rotor positions, 17576 starting positions on rotor and a plugboard only available to military 26!/6! 10! 2to the power of 10. Options. To break this code the bombe machine was created which would decipher the code once turing came up with a method. The algorithm was found a flaw was found which allowed turing to work from there, flaw was that a letter cannot represent itself therefore turing co tried every possible combination of the plug board duos in every possible rotor positions but because the setting sfor the enigma machine would change every day and new plan was set every month they needed to break the code every morning that is what the bombe did using electric currents throught each circuit going through wach option electronically. It was a success as they deciphered codes every morning. What we can learn from this is that every algorithm created has a method and it is always possible to find that method. Once found you can create a replica of that method for your own program,
Pseudocode is an informal high-level description of the operating principle of a computer or...

...AlanTuring -- if only he could see us now
22 March 2013
Laura Brazel
Table of Contents
What was Alan Turing’s contribution to the development of computers? 1
What were the theoretical contributions of AlanTuring to the development of computers? 1
What were the practical outcomes, in the form of machines and ``software'' of Alan Turing's work? 1
What is another famous contribution of AlanTuring in the field of computer science? 1
What was Alan Turing's contribution to the allied war effort in the Second World War? 2
What was the nature of the work undertaken by AlanTuring and his colleagues during the second world war? 2
How significant was the work of AlanTuring and his colleagues to the outcome of the war? 2
When did the contribution of his group become known to the public? 2
Is there a legacy of this work still present, i.e. something similar which is still going on? 2
Why did AlanTuring die so young? 3
Please outline the main details of the life of AlanTuring. 3
What were the laws that had a tragic effect on him? 3
How have these laws changed over the 60 or so years since his death? 3
Conclusion 3
Abstract
This article will...

...Magazine I have learned much about AlanTuring. I would like share with you how AlanTuring changed the computer age by focusing on three aspects of his life: the first his early life, second his adult life and third his work and accomplishments.
II. Body
a. Alan Mathieson Turing Early Life
i. Alan Mathieson Turing was born on June 23 1912, the second and last child of Julius Mathieson and Ethel Sara Turing. He was born in a nursing home in Paddington, London according to turing.org.uk which was I retrieved on 2/15/15
ii. His father worked in the Indian Civil service and instead of taking their child back to the East, they sent him to live with a retired Army couple in a seaside English town.
iii. Alan was a good-looking boy, dreamy, rather clumsy, and not very popular with his classmates.
iv. It wasn’t until his early teens when he met another boy who shared his passion for science,. They became inseparable friends exploring Einstein’s relativity theory together. Unfortunately a year later his friend died of tuberculosis.
b. Adult Life
i. In 1936, he went to Princeton University, returning to England in 1938. Cambridge University, fascinated by the math of quantum physics.
ii. He began to work secretly part-time for the British Government Code and Cypher School. On the outbreak of the Second World War he took up full-time work at...

...AlanTuring and Co.
Slate Sculpture: Stephen Kettle
1912-1954
Turing’s Path to Artificial Intelligence
• The Enigma • The Turing Machine • The Turing Test • Turing’s thoughts for Artificial Intelligence
The Enigma Machine
• e·nig·ma (n): 1)A person or thing that is mysterious or puzzling. 2)A riddle or paradox. • Originally designed by Arthur Sherbius and sold commercially for banking. • The “Enigma machine” was later adopted by the Germans and made into a Machine used to send coded messages during WWII. • The messages were encoded using the enigma machine and sent via morse code or radio.
The Enigma Machine
The Enigma Machine:
-Steckerboard (Playboard) - 26 keys
-3 or 4 routers
- Battery powered (portable) -Lamp board -Encode and decode messages
Steckerboard (Playboard) and rotors
Steckerboard (Playboard): -Plug connections using a wire - A/C, B/R, Q/P, Z/L etc.
Rotors: -26 rotational positions A-Z, or 01-26 (26 contacts that were wired in different ways for each rotor) - setting the 3 wheels in a certain position was the code for encrypting a message.
Using The Enigma
• Each enigma machine had to have the 3 rotors set in the same position in order to encode and decode message. In order to do this:
1) set up rotors to the specified wheel order for the day.
2) Indicator: Chose 3 letters at random. Type in 3 letters two times to encode message. - Sender: send Indicator and...

...Alan Mathison Turing (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954), was a British mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, and computer scientist. He was highly influential in the development of computer science, giving a formalisation of the concepts of "algorithm" and "computation" with the Turing machine, which can be considered a model of a general purpose computer. Turing is widely considered to be the father of computer science and artificial intelligence. He was stockily built, had a high-pitched voice, and was talkative, witty, and somewhat donnish. He showed many of the characteristics that are indicative of Asperger syndrome.
He had an elder brother, John. His father's civil service commission was still active, and during Turing's childhood years his parents travelled between Hastings in England and India, leaving their two sons to stay with a retired Army couple. Very early in life, Turing showed signs of the genius he was later to display prominently.
After Sherborne, Turing studied as an undergraduate from 1931 to 1934 at King's College, Cambridge, from where he gained first-class honours in mathematics. From September 1936 to July 1938, he spent most of his time studying under Church at Princeton University. In addition to his purely mathematical work, he studied cryptology and also built three of four stages of an electro-mechanical binary multiplier.
During World War II,...

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