Contents1 The Rise and Rule of Single-party States * 1.1 The Emergence of single party states in Europe after 1917 * 1.2 China- Mao Zedong * 1.3 Italy- Benito Mussolini * 1.4 Germany- Adolf Hitler * 1.5 Russia- Josef Stalin * 1.6 Cuba- Fidel Castro| Introduction
* The 20th century produced many single-party states. The origins, ideology, form of government, organization, nature, and impact of these should be studied in this topic. Questions will be set on major themes. Some of these will require knowledge of two regions. Major Themes
* Origins of single-party states
* conditions which produce single-party state.
* emergence of leader: aims, ideology, support.
* Establishment of single-party states
* methods: force, legal
* form of government, ideology (left and right wing)
* totalitarianism, treatment of opposition
* Rule of Single Party states
* political, economic, and social policies
* role of education, the arts, the media, and propaganda
* status of women, treatment of minorities, and religious groups
* Regional and Global impact
* foreign policy as a means of maintaining the regime
* impact of regime outside the state
* as a factor in the Cold War
* Examples of material for Detailed Study
* China: Mao Zedong
* Cuba: Fidel Castro
* Germany: Adolf Hitler
* Italy: Benito Mussolini
* Russia: Vladimir Lenin and Josef Stalin
The Emergence of single party states in Europe after 1917
Lenin rose to power in Russia because of four main factors:
* Witte's reforms attempting to industrialize Russia disrupted society. * Both the tsarist regime and the provisional government were unstable. * WWI had a crippling effect on Russia.
* The Whites sided with the provisional government and ex-tsarists. Emergence of Mussolini and Hitler
* Post war governments faced many difficulties- very unstable. * Fear of Communism
* Shame of WWI
China- Mao Zedong
Italy- Benito Mussolini
Mussolini was born into a socialist house. He remained a socialist until he returned from WW1 with a new perspective. He then started the fascist party. He and his fascist black shirt marched on Rome and claimed to have forced the government to allow Mussolini to be prime minister. Yet, the truth is the president of Italy feared Mussolini and gave him the position of minister without conflict. From this point, Mussolini gained support until he became leader of Italy. Paragraph: Italian Economic situation: • Inflation, the lire devalued to 1/5 of its original values. • Italy still had massive war loans. The Italian debt was 6x the prewar level. • Italian tourist trade and exports virtually came to a standstill. There was large scale unemployment. Paragraph: Political conditions / weaknesses • Between 1914 and 1921- Italy had seven different prime ministers. • No majority could stay in power. • Orlando lost support and resigned in 1919. • There was a general atmosphere of frustration and discontent amongst the Italian people due to the broken promises. The government was weak and failing. o Universal suffrage introduced in 1919. • Italian proportional system meant that political parties had to form coalitions in order to achieve anything in parliament. • The Fascist's opponents were divided, the socialist and the communists did not work together. The Prime minister, Giolitti could not govern the country with the socialists opposing him in Parliament. He organized the 1921 elections, attempting to bring the Fascists in parliament, in hopes that they would back his liberal party. • Fascists won 35 seats, while the socialists held 122. The socialists could still block the government's policy in parliament Paragraph: Social conditions • Italian patriots felt the Italian government had betrayed them in 1919. • Occupation of Fiume. In September 1919, a volunteer force led by the...