CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
Topic: The Bottom Billion
Title: The Problems of Irrigation System in Sudan
According to Collier (2008) bottom billion are country whose problems defy traditional approaches to alleviating poverty. The crisis lies in a group of 50 states that failed to develop in the twenty-first century. Haiti, Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria are the listed country of the bottom billion. But 70 percent of the bottom billion lived in Africa, and there is good reason to expect that proportion to rise.
According to Robert (2008) Sudan was a collection of small, independent kingdoms and principalities from the beginning of the Christian era until 1820-21, when Egypt conquered and unified the northern portion of the country. Sudan is the third largest country in Africa. The topography of Sudan is flat with mountains in east and west. According to The World Factbook, Khartoum, the capital city of Sudan situated at the meet of Blue and White Nile Rivers which make the soil fertile and good for agriculture activity. About 80 percent of Sudan people make profit from agriculture activities and about 97 percent of the water used.The products of agriculture are cotton, peanuts, sorghum, sesame seeds, gum arabic, sugarcane, millet, and livestock.
northern states of Khartoum and Gezira. In addition, there is an irrigation project, Gezira carried out by the government to enhance the water system for the agriculture. Therefore, agriculture contributes the largest profit to the country. Unfortunately, there are some problems occurs in their irrigation system. One of the problems is the weakness of the government in controlling the irrigation system. Next, the low maintenance of the irrigation system, Al Gezira and drought can lead to error in irrigation system for agriculture.
These studies are mainly focus on the irrigation problems in one of the bottom billion countries, Sudan. The objectives are shown below:
3. To study on the problem of irrigation system in Sudan
1. To study the reasons and the causes of the failure of irrigation system in Sudan
2. To study the solutions to reduce the problems of irrigation system
The coverage for the study is in……… because there are Sudanese in this university which can be carried out the research. Besides, most of the Sudanese in …. are students so they have better understanding towards their own country. The research method used is by qualitative approach that is interview because to get more information and the question can be more specific towards the objectives. The number of respondents is five people. We summarize the outcome of the interview session into a few parts according to the objectives. From that information, we can analyze the problem and thus find the solution for each of the problems by description.
In conclusion, Sudan is a country which cannot escape from being entangled in one of the four distinct traps that contribute to poverty and lack of development in the country. Furthermore, this country also get involves in numerous of economic issues which also covered the agricultural problems. Therefore, this is the reason why this country has been listed as a bottom billion country. From the agriculture views, the irrigation system has the major flaws. The foulness of the irrigation system affects the entire agriculture activities. We hope that these problems can be solved so that Sudan can escape from the title of bottom billion. In the next chapter, we will deal with the problems of irrigation system and their solutions.
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
Sudan has been listed as one of the bottom billion country. Irrigation system which is one of biggest contribution to Sudan...
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