Philippines - Economic sectors
In the Philippines, the 3 largest economic sectors are industry, service, and agriculture, in terms of contribution to GDP. In past years, the service sector has exhibited continuous growth. Agriculture, although still substantial, continues to decline. Estimates from 1997 reveal that agriculture contributed 20 percent to GDP, industry contributed 32 percent, and services dominated the economy with 48 percent of GDP. In 1999 the rate of growth of the GDP stood at 3.2 percent. Economists blamed the sluggish growth on the lackluster performance of the industry sector, which grew by 0.5 percent. With the end of the dry spell brought about by El Niño weather conditions, the agriculture sector's performance rebounded and grew 6.6 percent, the highest rate in decades. Services grew by 3.9 percent that year because of the strong performance in retail. Maximum economic growth for 1999 and 2000 was slowed by successive political crises in the Estrada administration that caused foreign and international lending agencies to lose confidence. In 2000 GDP posted a 3.9 percent positive growth rate, with industry growing 4 times faster than it did in 1999. Services continued its strong performance, with a 4.4 percent increase over its 1999 figures.
Agriculture And The Origins Of Civilization: The Neolithic Revolution Edited By: Robert Guisepi
There was nothing natural or inevitable about the development of agriculture. Because cultivation of plants requires more labor than hunting and gathering, we can assume that Stone Age humans gave up their former ways of life reluctantly and slowly. In fact, peoples such as the Bushmen of Southwest Africa still follow them today. But between about 8000 and 3500 B.C., increasing numbers of humans shifted to dependence on cultivated crops and domesticated animals for their subsistence. By about 7000 B.C., their tools and skills had advanced sufficiently for cultivating peoples to support towns with over one thousand people, such as Jericho in the valley of the Jordan River and Catal Huyuk in present-day Turkey. By 3500 B.C., agricultural peoples in the Middle East could support sufficient numbers of non-cultivating specialists to give rise to the first civilizations. As this pattern spread to or developed independently in other centers across the globe, the character of most human lives and the history of the species as a whole were fundamentally transformed.
Causes Of The Agrarian Transformation
Because there are no written records of the transition period between8000 and 5000 B.C. when many animals were first domesticated and plants were cultivated on a regular basis, we cannot be certain why and how some peoples adopted these new ways of producing food and other necessities of life. Climatic changes associated with the retreat of the glaciers at the end of the last Ice Age (about 12,000 B.C.), may have played an important role. These climatic shifts prompted the migration of many big game animals to new pasturelands in northern areas. They also left a dwindling supply of game forhuman hunters in areas such as the Middle East, where agriculture first arose and many animals were first domesticated. Climatic shifts also led to changes in the distribution and growing patterns of wild grains and other crops on which hunters and gatherers depended. In addition, it is likely that the shift to sedentary farming was prompted in part by an increase in human population in certain areas. It is possible that the population growth was caused by changes in the climate and plant and animal life, forcing hunting bands to move into the territories where these shifts had been minimal. It is also possible that population growth occurred within these unaffected regions, because the hunting-and-gathering pattern reached higher levels of productivity. Peoples like the Natufians found their human communities could grow significantly by intensively harvesting grains that grew...
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