The Past, Present, and Future of Pesticide Use and Bans

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The past, present, and future
of pesticide use and bans

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PESTICIDE BANS .................................................................................................................................2

INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................................2

THE STOCKHOLM CONVENTION........................................................................................2

DEMAND FOR PESTICIDE CONTROL.................................................................................3

PESTICIDES IN ONTARIO.......................................................................................................4

DDT...........................................................................................................................................................5

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES.......................................................................................................5

HISTORY OF DDT......................................................................................................................6

EFFECTS OF DDT......................................................................................................................7

DDT BANS...................................................................................................................................7

VECTOR CONTROL..................................................................................................................8

PESTICIDE ALTERNATIVES..............................................................................................................9

THE PROBLEM OF UNSUSTAINABILITY...........................................................................9

THE SOLUTION.......................................................................................................................10

INTERGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT...............................................................................10

ORGANIC ALTERNATIVES & APPLICATIONS................................................................11

CANADIAN TRENDS...............................................................................................................12

ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF REDUCED PESTICIDE USE.................................................13

CONCLUSION.......................................................................................................................................14

REFERENCES.......................................................................................................................................15

Pesticide Bans
Introduction
Farmed crops have been an important livelihood for centuries, but when losses from 10 to 90% occur because of pests and diseases, a solution was desperately needed. About 4500 years ago the Sumerians used sulfur compounds to control insects and mites, and following them were the Chinese who used mercury and arsenic to control body lice (Unsworth, 2010). Up until the 1940s, many products were organically derived, but following this time period synthetic pesticides were developed. Once the effectiveness of aldrin, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, and chlorodane was discovered, these became the primary pesticides because they were inexpensive and were not seen to cause any health risks at the time. DDT was especially helpful because of its ability to control lice and malaria, although with time some insects developed a resistance (Unsworth, 2010). Overall, pesticides have only gotten more potent and harmful over the years, and we are now trying to produce better alternatives and phase out the ones which are most harmful.

The Stockholm Convention
The public has been using pesticides for decades, but has only recently realized the harmful effects that they are having on their...
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