A. Analyze the selected communicable disease outbreak by doing the following:
Describe the communicable disease outbreak.
Avian Influenza, also known as the Bird Flu, is an influenza A virus caused by avian, which means bird. These viruses occur naturally in some birds. Wild birds in all areas of the world get the viral infections in their intestines, but do not usually become ill from them. The avian influenza is quite contagious among birds and can even kill domesticated species such as chickens, turkeys, and ducks. These birds become infected when exposed to secretions or feces from infected birds or from coming into contact with surfaces that those infected birds have come into contact with (cdc.gov). Birds, just like people, get the flu. Most bird flu viruses can only infect other birds. However, bird flu can pose health risks to people. The first case of a bird flu virus infecting a person directly, H5N1, was in Hong Kong in 1997. Since then, the bird flu virus has spread to birds in countries in Asia, Africa and Europe. Human infection is very rare, but the virus that causes the infection in birds might change, or mutate, to more easily infect humans. This could lead to a pandemic. During an outbreak of bird flu, people who have had contact with infected birds can become sick. It may also be possible to catch the bird flu by eating poultry that is not well cooked or through contact with a person who has it. Once infected with the Bird Flu symptoms occur approximately two to eight days after exposure. Infected people experience typical flu – like symptoms including fever, cough, sore throat, and muscle aches. This can progress to pneumonia and even respiratory failure. The Bird Flu can cause a very aggressive form of pneumonia, called ARDS, that is often fatal. The risk to humans from this disease is typically low. However, several subtypes of the avian influenza infection have been reported in humans since 1997. Most of these cases have been caused by contact with infected birds or surfaces that have become contaminated from secretions or excretions from the infected birds. Some precautions to take would be to inform travelers to avoid visits to live bird markets in areas with an avian flu outbreak. Also people who work with birds who might be infected should use protective clothing and special breathing masks. And also it is important to avoid undercooked or uncooked meat .
Describe the epidemiological indicators associated with the identified disease.
Human cases of avian influenza have been reported in Asia, Europe, Africa, Indonesia, Vietnam, and the Philippines (nytimes.com). In 2004, an investigation in Thailand concluded that human spread of the virus was limited to a family as a result of close contact between an infected child and her mother. Transmission was not discovered to go beyond on person (cdc.gov). Also in 2004 in Japan, there have been reports of respiratory symptoms in the majority of known cases of the avian influenza, with one death of a child as a result of the disease. In 2005, Vietnamese investigations implicated the transmission of the avian influenza to two people from ingesting the uncooked blood from a duck. In Azerbaijan in 2006, several teenagers were found to have become infected by removing feathers from an infected bird. In Indonesia in 2006, 8 members of one family were infected from human to human contact and 7 of them died. The first member is believed to have been infected by contaminated fowl then infected the other members of the family. No infections outside that family were reported (cdc.gov).
Analyze the epidemiological data on the outbreak.
According to the CDC, Indonesia and Vietnam have reported the highest number of human cases. Overall mortality in those cases is 60%. Nearly all clusters reported have occurred between blood related members of a family living under the same roof...