* October Manifesto, Duma, Promise of reform
* Railway strike, General strike e.g. st p’s, soviet and Trotsky * Army and Police: useful to supress revolution, stays loyal * Promising concessions but fundamental laws. Witte is an economic reformer, not keen on political return. Stolypin he instigates reforms, harsh measures against people who try to overrun the government. He recognised gradual political change needs to happen. Reform in this instance is, not democracy but adapting to survive. Both Witte & Stolypin willing to listen to genuine grievances. Concessions are gradually withdrawn and this is perhaps best seen in the Duma, it’s got limited franchise if the Tsars not happy then the Duma is simply dismissed and replaces. There are 4 different Dumas 1906-1914. Opposition: Moderates, Revolutionaries (minority) both disunited. Working Class (Urban) / Peasantry (Rural)
after 1905 “Politicised” they’re aware that change is possible and that there are alternatives. Middle Class: Most of the middle class seek liberal reforms, seek better representation, like a constitutional monarchy. Don’t want to get rid of the Tsar but make them more like ‘us’. (Edward VII) Democracy. Witte and Stolypin do not want this, nor Nicholas II. He doesn’t have the imagination of the consequences or that change is inevitable. The problem being with the middle class is that they are comparatively smaller to the other opposing parties. Upper class: Nobles (Land owners) They’re prime concern is the maintenance of the status quo (keeping things the same) Many of the upper class aren’t happy with Witte and Stolypin, think they’re doing to much.
By 1911 Witte is no longer on the scene he’s resigned. Stolypin is assassinated. After this the government lacked anyone with the ability, vision etc. to manage change. Any kind of change. Nobody in government that really knows what he’s doing. And Nicholas isn’t really grasping the gravity of...