The Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer (a protocol to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer) is an international treaty designed to protect theozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances believed to be responsible forozone depletion. The treaty was opened for signature on September 16, 1987, and entered into force on January 1, 1989, followed by a first meeting in Helsinki, May 1989. Since then, it has undergone seven revisions, in 1990 (London), 1991 (Nairobi), 1992 (Copenhagen), 1993 (Bangkok), 1995 (Vienna), 1997 (Montreal), and 1999 (Beijing). It is believed that if the international agreement is adhered to, the ozone layer is expected to recover by 2050. Due to its widespread adoption and implementation it has been hailed as an example of exceptional international co-operation with Kofi Annan quoted as saying that "perhaps the single most successful international agreement to date has been the Montreal Protocol" It has been ratified by 196 states.
OZONE DEPLETING SUBSTANCES:
What are ozone depleting substances?
Ozone depleting substances (ODS) are those substances which deplete the ozone layer and are widely used in refrigerators, air-conditioners, fire extinguishers, in dry cleaning, as solvents for cleaning, electronic equipment and as agricultural fumigants. Ozone depleting substances include:
* Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) - A chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) is an organic compound that contains carbon, chlorine, and fluorine, produced as a volatile derivative ofmethane and ethane. A common subclass is the hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), which contain hydrogen, as well. They are also commonly known by the DuPont trade name Freon. The most common representative is dichlorodifluoromethane (R-12 or Freon-12). Many CFCs have been widely used as refrigerants, propellants (in aerosol applications), and solvents. The manufacture of such compounds is being phased out by the Montreal Protocol because they contribute to ozone depletion. * Halon - Halons are used as fire extinguishing agents, both in built-in systems and in handheld portable fire extinguishers. Halon production in the U.S. ended on December 31, 1993, because they contribute to ozone depletion. They cause ozone depletionbecause they contain bromine. Bromine is many times more effective at destroying ozone than chlorine. At the time the current U.S. tax code was adopted, the ozone depletion potentials of halon 1301 and halon 1211 were observed to be 10 and 3, respectively. These values are used for tax calculations. Recent scientific studies, however, indicate that the ODPs are at least 12 and 6, respectively * Carbon tetrachloride, Methyl chloroform - Carbon tetrachloride was widely used as a raw material in many industrial uses, including the production of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and as a solvent. Solvent use ended when it was discovered to be carcinogenic. It is also used as a catalyst to deliver chlorine ions to certain processes. Its ozone depletion potential is 1.2. Methyl chloroform is used as an industrial solvent. Its ozone depletion potential is 0.11 * Hydrobromofluorocarbons (HBFCs) - a compound consisting of hydrogen, bromine, fluorine, and carbon. * Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) -
* Methyl bromide - Methyl Bromide is an effective pesticide used to fumigate soil and many agricultural products. Because it contains bromine, it depletes stratospheric ozone and has an ozone depletion potential of 0.6. Production of methyl bromide was phased out on December 31, 2004, except for allowable exemptions Bromochloromethane (BCM) - Bromochloromethane or methylene bromochloride and Halon 1011 is a mixedhalomethane. It is a heavy low-viscosity liquid with refractive index 1.4808. It was invented for use in fire extinguishers by the Germans during the mid-40s, in an attempt to create a less-toxic, more effective alternative to carbon tetrachloride....