R E V I E W
S H E E T
The Integumentary System
Basic Structure of the Skin
1. Complete the following statements by writing the appropriate word or phrase on the correspondingly numbered blank: Stratified squamous epithelium The two basic tissues of which the skin is composed are dense irregular 1. _____________________________ connective tissue, which makes up the dermis, and 1 , which forms the epiKeratinocytes dermis. The tough water-repellent protein found in the epidermal cells is called 2. _____________________________ 2 . The pigments melanin and 3 contribute to skin color. A localized keratin concentration of melanin is referred to as a 4 . 3. _____________________________ 4. 2. Four protective functions of the skin are a. b. prevents desiccation ____________________________________________ protects against thermal damage ____________________________________________ c. d. prevents bacterial invasion _________________________________________ protects against UV readiation _________________________________________ melanocytes _____________________________
3. Using the key choices, choose all responses that apply to the following descriptions. Key: a. b. c. stratum basale stratum corneum stratum granulosum d. e. f. stratum lucidum stratum spinosum papillary layer g. reticular layer h. epidermis as a whole i. dermis as a whole
stratum lucidum stratumcorneum & lucidum papilliary layer dermis as a whole epidermis as a whole stratum basale stratum corneum stratum spinosum dermis as a whole stratum basale stratum spinosum papillary layer
1. translucent cells in thick skin containing keratin fibrils 2. dead cells 3. dermal layer responsible for fingerprints 4. vascular region 5. major skin area that produces derivatives (nails and hair) 6. epidermal region exhibiting the most rapid cell division 7. scalelike dead cells, full of keratin, that constantly slough off 8. mitotic cells filled with intermediate filaments 9. has abundant elastic and collagenic fibers 10. location of melanocytes and Merkel cells 11. area where weblike pre-keratin filaments first appear 12. region of areolar connective tissue
4. Label the skin structures and areas indicated in the accompanying diagram of thin skin. Then, complete the statements that follow.
granulosum Stratum spinosum Stratum basale dermal papillae hair root sebaceous gland hair follicle arrector pili muscle Reticular layer
Blood vessel Subcutaneous tissue or
hair bulb nerve fiber
hypodermis pacinian corpuscle
(deep pressure receptor)
a. b. c. d. e. f. g.
laminated the epidermis.
granules extruded from the keratinocytes prevent water loss by diffusion through . glands. . .
Fibers in the dermis are produced by fibroblasts
Glands that respond to rising androgen levels are the sebaceous & apocrine Phagocytic cells that occupy the epidermis are called epidermal dendritic
A unique touch receptor formed from a stratum basale cell and a nerve fiber is a tactile or merkel disc What layer is present in thick skin but not in thin skin? stratum lucidum What cell-to-cell structures hold the cells of the stratum spinosum tightly together? desmosomes
Review Sheet 7
5. What substance is manufactured in the skin that plays a role in calcium absorption elsewhere in the body? vitamin D3 6. List the sensory receptors found in the dermis of the skin. free nerve endings for pain, temperature, messiners
corpuscles for touch in the hairless skin, pacinian corpuscles for pressure
7. A nurse tells a doctor that a patient is cyanotic. Define cyanosis. What does its presence imply?
a blue cast to the skin
not enough oxygenation of the blood localized area of tissue necrosis and death
8. What is a bedsore (decubitus...