Houston, A. C. (1991). Children in Poverty: Child Development and Public Policy. Cambridge University Press. Biddle, B. J. (2001) Social Class, Poverty and Education: Policy and Practice. New York: Routlegefalmer Press. Gamoran, A. (2007). Standards – Based Reform and The Poverty Gap: Lessons for No Child Left Behind. Brookings Institution Press. Barnett, W. S., & Boocock, S.S., (1998). Early Care and Education in for Children Poverty: Promises, Programs, and Long Term Results. Suny Press. Clarke, M. & Feeney, S. (2007). Education for the End of Poverty: Implementing all the Millennium Developing Goals. Nova Science Publishers, Inc. Arrighi, B.A., & Maume, D.J. (2007). Child Poverty in America Today. The promise of education. Greenwood Publishing Group. Solley, B. A. (2005). When Poverty’s Children Write. Celebrating Strengths, Transforming Lives. Portsmouth, NH: Heineman, Inc. Bracey, G. W. (1997). Understanding Education Statistics: It’s Easier (and more important) than… Educational Research Service (Arlington, Va.)
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Kozol, J. (2005). Ordinary Resurrections: Children in the Years of Hope. Brilliance Audio Lib Edn. The Rothstein, R. (2008). Beyond NCLB: Proposals to Broaden Accountability. Brookings Institution Press.
The Impact of Poverty 2
Poverty is the condition in which a person or community is deprived of or lacks the essentials for a minimum standard of well-being and life. Since poverty is understood in many senses, these essentials may be material resources such as food, safe drinking water, and shelter, or they may be social resources such as access to information, education, health care, social status, political power, or even the opportunity to develop meaningful connections with other people in society.( Hunger and World Poverty, http://www.poverty.com). This is also referred to as absolute poverty or destitution. Relative poverty is the condition of having fewer resources or less income than others within a society or country, or compared to worldwide averages. In addition to a lack of money, poverty is about not being able to participate in recreational activities; not being able to send children on a day trip with their schoolmates or to a birthday party; not being able to pay for medications for an illness. These are all costs of being poor. Those people who are barely able to pay for food and shelter simply can’t consider these other expenses. There is no one cause of poverty, and the results of it are different in every case. Poverty varies considerably depending on the situation. The differences between rich and poor within the borders of a country can also be great. Despite the many definitions, one thing is certain; poverty is a complex societal issue. No matter how poverty is defined, it can be agreed that it is an issue that requires everyone’s attention. The Impact of Poverty 3
Poverty, whether absolute or relative, permeates every aspect of an individual's life, including their access to education and their experience of the education process itself. This is a disturbing fact when education is regarded by many as the best route of escaping poverty; to help individuals improve themselves and their lot in life, and ultimately to provide a better future for their own children. The situation is obviously more pronounced in developing countries, where education is not freely available to all children, with many becoming adults who are barely able to read and write. Even in many developed nations, though, there is a disparity between the education received by those from affluent backgrounds and those who are not. Children who grow up in poverty tend to live in deprived areas within their town or city, sometimes in single-parent families. Often their parents have...