The Impact of Dyslexia on Normative Development

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The Impact of Dyslexia on Normative Development

Name

Saint Mary’s University of Minnesota

Schools of Graduate and Professional Programs
PY605B Developmental Psychology
Dr. Sharon Votel, Instructor
Date
Table of Contents
The Phenomenology of Dyslexia3
Definitions of Dyslexia4
Etiology of Dyslexia5
Brain Structure5
Anomalies in the Left Cerebral Cortex5
Size Differences in the Cerebral Hemispheres6
Cerebellar Dysfunction6
Brain Function6
Genetics7
Prevalence of Dyslexia7
Dyslexia in Early Childhood8
Social Skills8
Speech and Language8
Sensory-Motor9
Dyslexia in Middle Childhood8
Social Skills8
Academic Performance8
Self-Esteem8 Dyslexia in Adolescence8
Social Interactions8
Academic Performance8
Identity Formation8
Dyslexia in Adulthood8
Relationships8
Occupational Vocational Development8
Work9 Summary and Conclusions10
References10

The Impact of Dyslexia on Normative Development
Dyslexia is an invisible disability that is experienced by each person in a different way. This paper is an examination of the definitions, etiology, and prevalence of dyslexia today and its developmental impact on children, adolescents, and adults. Osmond (1993) found that dyslexia has a unique emotional impact on each person. He interviewed 12 people, ages 6 to 15, about their experiences with this disorder, and discovered each had an increasingly difficult time describing specific characteristics. One interviewee told Osmond, “Sometimes I feel like giving my brain a good wash” (p. 21) and another stated, “I read like my mouth doesn’t belong to my brain” (p. 22). A third replied, “There’s something in my brain that won’t click open,” and a fourth, “My brain is back to front, really” (p. 22). After highlighting major features of dyslexia, I am going to identify specific developmental domains of individuals in early childhood, middle childhood, adolescence, and adulthood that may be impacted. The Phenomenology of Dyslexia

Dyslexia is difficult to describe. Although a specific diagnostic label for decades, the exact definition, etiology, and prevalence remain unclear. The following is a sketch at best. Definitions of Dyslexia

Dyslexia is a condition that is manifested in a person having trouble with words. People who have dyslexia are affected educationally, emotionally, and socially. They may have difficulty learning to read, write, spell, and comprehend what they read or hear. Dyslexia involves difficulty with phonological processing (i.e., understanding the individually distinct sound units of language). Dyslexia is defined as having difficulty “managing and memorizing sequences of the speech sounds whose relationship to print forms the basis of learning to read” (Osmond, 1993, p. 8). Moragne (1997) said that people with dyslexia “have a lack of awareness of phonemes which are the smallest units of language, for example the c in cat is a phoneme” (p. 19). Include current definitions and sources. Etiology of Dyslexia

There are three current theories about the etiology of dyslexia. The areas of focus are brain structure, brain function, and genetics. Brain structure. The first hypothesis about etiology is that brain structure itself is atypical (source, date). Those differences may be in the left cortex alone, in the respective sizes of the left and right hemispheres, or in the cerebellum. Anomalies in the left cerebral cortex. In the 1970s, Dr. Albert M. Galabruda confirmed Dr. Samuel Orton’s original 1950s theory and phrased it as follows: The localized section of the brain that directs all aspects of reading skills is different in dyslexics. The anomaly or altered development exists in the formation of the...
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