Sumit JainBBA Semester-IIIPRN 11021021057Basics of International Economics
The Group of Twenty Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors (G-20, G20, and Group of Twenty) is a group of finance ministers and central bank governors from 20 major economies: 19 countries plus the European Union, which is represented by the President of the European Council and by the European Central Bank. Their heads of government or heads of state have also periodically conferred at summits since their initial meeting in 2008. G20 studies, reviews, and promotes high-level discussion of policy issues pertaining to the promotion of international financial stability, and seeks to address issues that go beyond the responsibilities of any one organization. With the G-20 growing in stature after the 2008 Washington summit, its leaders announced on September 25, 2009, that the group would replace the G8 as the main economic council of wealthy nations.
Collectively, the G-20 economies account for more than 80 percent of the gross world product (GWP), 80 percent of world trade (including EU intra-trade), and two-thirds of the world population. They furthermore account for 84.1 percent and 82.2 percent of the world's economic growth by nominal GDP and GDP (PPP) respectively from the years 2010 to 2016, according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
The objective of the G20 is:
1. Policy coordination between its members in order to achieve global economic stability, sustainable growth; 2. To promote financial regulations that reduce risks and prevent future financial crises; and 3. To create a new international financial architecture.
G20 members represent almost:
1. 90% of global GDP.
2. 80% of international global-trade.
3. 64% of the world’s population lives in G20 member countries. 4. 84% of all fossil fuel emissions are produced by G20 countries.
HISTORY & ORIGIN
The G-20, which superseded the G33 (which had itself superseded the G22), was foreshadowed at the Cologne Summit of the G7 in June 1999, but was only formally established at the G7 Finance Ministers' meeting on 26 September 1999. The inaugural meeting took place on 15–16 December 1999 in Berlin. In 2008, Spain and the Netherlands were included, by French invitation, in the G-20 Leaders Summit on Financial Markets and the World Economy.
The G-20 was created as a response both to the financial crises of the late 1990s and to a growing recognition that key emerging-market countries were not adequately included in the core of global economic discussion and governance. Its aim was to involve non-G-7 countries in the resolution of global aspects of the financial crisis then affecting emerging-market countries.
Two subsequent meetings comprising a larger group of participants (G-33) held in March and April 1999 discussed reforms of the global economy and the international financial system.
The proposals made by the G-22 and the G-33 to reduce the world economy's susceptibility to crises showed the potential benefits of a regular international consultative forum embracing the emerging-market countries.
Such a regular dialogue with a constant set of partners was institutionalized by the creation of the G-20 in 1999.
The G-20 is the premier forum for international economic development that promotes open and constructive discussion between industrial and emerging-market countries on key issues related to global economic stability.
By contributing to the strengthening of the international financial architecture and providing opportunities for dialogue on national policies, international co-operation, and international financial institutions, the G-20 helps to support growth and development across the globe.
The G-20 is made up of the finance ministers and central bank governors of 19 countries and the European Union:
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