The Four Ancient Civilizations

Topics: Roman Republic, Ancient Rome, Ancient Egypt Pages: 6 (2089 words) Published: December 10, 2012
Ancient civilizations
The following 4 ancient civilizations all have very different types of development whether it be because the difference in geographical, economic or social location does not change the fact that these four civilizations have come (and some have not come) to present day extremely different from one another because of their different developmental patterns. Extremely early Egyptians began settling along the Nile during the Neolithic period. The Nile provided necessary resources such as water, wildlife, and the ability to grow crops that the new form of human settlement had become accustom to. The Nile provided life for the Egyptians, but the desert around The Nile, was filled with nothing but death for humans. The greatest thing about this setup of having life within and death without was that the Egyptians could sustain themselves without much dependence on the outside world, and best of all, the desert protected them from invaders. In this way, Egyptians were not burdened with the thoughts of defending themselves from invasion or bartering their goods to get things they needed, they had natural protection and provision. With this in mind, you can see how the Egyptians were then able to spend less time thinking about many of the things that other civilizations think about, and spend more time thinking about other things such as art, math, language and other abstract ideas. Near the beginning of ancient Egypt’s history The Nile valley was practically unlivable. Eventually the land around the banks of the river was cleared and irrigated. By around 6000 BC society in the Valley had already progressed to organized agriculture and the construction of large buildings. By at least 4000 BC cows were being herded, mortar was being used in the construction of buildings, and barley and emmer was being grown. During this time Egypt was divided into 2 kingdoms called Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt. It is thought that sometime around 3150 BC King Menes brought Upper and Lower Egypt together into one kingdom. The Old Kingdom was the period of time when the pyramids were built. This was from 2686 BC to 2134 BC. The Old Kingdom ended 2150 BC because of civil war and drought. From around 2160 to 2040 BC there was a time called The First Intermediate Period. During this time weak pharaohs with little control and civil war left Egypt disorganized and weak. From around 2040-1700 BC The middle Kingdom arose. During this time Egyptians began to worship Osiris. A man named Senusret began taking away power from local monarchs and began restoring much of the previous power of the pharaoh. This process took place from about 1878 to 1843 BC. During the period of 1525 to 1512 BC Egypt extended is border into Syria. From 1353 to 1335 BC a pharaoh named Akhenaten came in and changed the primary religion from a polytheistic religion into a monotheistic religion, right after his death the next pharaoh, Tutankhamun changed religion back to the polytheism that it was before. In 525 BC Persia conquered Egypt; five years after this happened a canal was built that connected the Red Sea and The Nile. In the year 404 BC Egypt rebelled against Persia and captured Egypt, around 60 years later Persia reclaimed Egypt. 110 years after that Alexander the Great took over Egypt and put one of his generals in charge. Cleopatra became the new ruler of Egypt from 51-30 BC. She and her general Marc Antony were defeated in 31 BC, immediately after this Rome took over Egypt. For the most part Egyptians followed different polytheisms that contained multiple gods, except for one span of time where the religion was changed to monotheism, this was quickly extinguished and the former polytheism was reinstated. The language spoken during this time and for a very long time after was simply Egyptian. Though there we a few different writing forms. For example Hieroglyphs were used in ceremonial writings and on the walls and monuments of tombs. Other writings that...
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