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J. JOHN L. SWASY, and LAWRENCE MARKS* ARNO J. RETHANS,
elaborationmodelof messagerepetition effects Theauthorsreviewthe two-factor and report a study of the model'sapplicabilityto new productadvertising.The inverted-U betweenrepdo relationship studyfindings not supportthe hypothesized and product. However,the underetitionand attitudetowarda novel commercial lyingprocessesof learning,tediumarousal,and elaborationwere observed.Viewer lengthdid not moderatethese processes. knowledgeand commercial
The effects of repeated exposure to an advertising message have long been of considerable basic and pragmatic interest to marketers. Early research on the effects of repetition was motivated by the need to estimate the into of parameters a repetitionfunction to be incorporated advertising media models (Aaker 1975; Little and Lodish 1969; Ray and Sawyer 1971a, b; Ray, Sawyer, and Strong 1971). Subsequent research examined the effects of advertising repetition on more general outcome measures such as attitudes, recall, and behavioral intention (Ginter 1974; Gorn and Goldberg 1980; Mitchell and Olson 1977; Winter 1973). More recently, research efforts have shifted toward a consideration of the underlying processes that create the various observed responses to an advertising message after multiple exposures. Researchers adopting the latter avenue of inquiry are attempting to show how the effects of repetition might be explained by message-receiver-generated cognitive responses (Belch 1982; Calder and Sternthal 1980; Sawyer 1981; Wright 1980). *Arno J. Rethans and John L. Swasy are Assistant Professors of Marketing, The Pennsylvania State University. Lawrence J. Marks is Assistant Professor of Marketing, University of Southern California. The authors thank Daniel W. Matthaidess, Coordinator of Communications Research, The Eastman Kodak Company, for providing the stimulus commercials, Gregory Boiler, Mary Dwonzyck, and Manoj Hastak for their assistance in data collection and analysis, and the JMR reviewers for their constructive comments. The research was funded by a research grant to the first two authors from the Center for Research, The Pennsylvania State University. 50
The theoretical explanations offered for the observed repetition effects have been borrowed from the social psychology literature rather than originating within advertising and marketingcommunication research. In particular, Berlyne's (1970) two-factor theory and the twofactor cognitive response model by Cacioppo and Petty (1979, 1980) have been thought to hold promise for explaining past empirical results in marketing. Much more research, however, is warrantedto test the appropriateness and practical utility of these theoretical accounts (Cacioppo and Petty...