The Economics of Unemployment: A Comparative Analysis

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We are grateful to Ms.Asma Hyder who was a great help in the project. She was always available to help us with the problem areas. She took out time for us at all times, putting her work aside therefore we thank her for the effort she has put into our project. Her encouragement has always inspired us as she helped us whenever we needed her help. She helped us in our problem areas all the time. It would have been a difficult task having to do our project without her help.

Executive Summary:
This report starts with the introduction of unemployment followed by the explanations of various types of unemployment. The report also contains the objective for doing the project and motivation behind doing research on this particular topic. The major portion of the report contains the data and its analysis which is done with the help of bar graphs .It also contains the reasons for increased unemployment and the consequences that Pakistan is facing due to increased unemployment. Some of the major governmental policies have also been discussed in this report and the effect of those policies. In the end a brief conclusion of the research work has also been given. The tables giving comparison of unemployment with age, sex and provinces are provided in the annexure.

Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION:4
PRESENT SITUATION6
OBJECTIVE:8
MOTIVATION BEHIND THE TOPIC:8
ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY:9
LITERATURE REVIEW10
DATA12
Unemployment Rates: Sex and Age13
Required data:17
ANALYSIS19
ANALYSIS OF UNEMPLOYMENT RATE VERSUS GDP GROWTH RATE20
Comparison of GDP with unemployment using bar chart21
ANALYSIS OF UNEMPLOYMENT RATE VERSUS INVESTMENT GROWTH RATE22 Comparison of investment with unemployment using bar chart22 ANALYSIS OF UNEMPLOYMENT RATE VERSUS EXPORT GROWTH RATE23 ANALYSIS OF UNEMPLOYMENT RATE PROVINCE WISE25 ANALYSIS OF UNEMPLOYMENT RATE RURAL/URBAN WISE26

ANALYSIS OF UNEMPLOYMENT RATE AGE AND GENDER WISE27
CONCLUSION:30
GOVERNMENT POLICIES:32
PROGRAMS INITIATED BY GOVERNMENT:33
REFERENCES:37
ANNEXURE39

INTRODUCTION:
Unemployment refers to the inability for willing workers to find gainful employment. The degree of unemployment in a nation is one indicator of the economic health of the country. Many factors can negatively affect the unemployment rate including corporate downsizing, mergers, implementation of automation technologies, and job outsourcing to other nations. TYPES OF UNEMPLOYMENT: Structural Unemployment Structural unemployment is caused by a mismatch between jobs offered by employers and potential workers. This may pertain to geographical location, skills, and many other factors. Cyclical Unemployment Cyclical unemployment also known as demand deficient unemployment occurs when there is not enough aggregate demand in the economy. This is caused by a business cycle recession and wages not falling to meet the equilibrium rate. Frictional Unemployment It represents people who are temporarily unemployed because they are in between jobs. Seasonal Unemployment Seasonal unemployment occurs because of the seasonal nature of some jobs (fruit pickers) Underemployed It refers to people who are working less than full-time hours but would like to work longer

Long-term Unemployed
These are people who have been unemployed for longer than 12 months. Hard core Unemployment: These are people who are unemployed due to their personal, mental or physical characteristics. Major Causes of Unemployment in PAKISTAN from Past to Present: 1.Employment in the private sector absolutely stopped because they shifted their capital to other countries because of nationalization of industrial units which badly affected the investment industrial sector. 2.The higher growth rate of population is the major cause of unemployment in Pakistan. The resources of the country are limited because population has exceeded the optimum level. 3.Karachi is the biggest industrial base of...
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