The Earth and Its People: Chapter 13 Outline

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Tropical Africa and Asia (1200 – 1500)
Ibn Battuta
1. Young Muslim scholar
2. Completed the pilgrimage to mecca
3. logged 75,000 miles of travel in 29 years
4. Powerful states and commercial systems were only made possible by local farmers, fishermen and pastoralists
Tropical Lands and Peoples
The Tropical Environment
1. Africa lies almost entirely within the tropics, as do southern Arabia, most of India and all of the Southeast Asian mainland and islands
2. In the lands around the Indian Ocean the rainy and dry seasons reflect the influence of alternating winds known as monsoons
3. The English word jungle comes from an Indian word for the tangled undergrowth in the tropical forests that once covered most of southern India
4. The Himalayas block cold air from moving south, giving northern India a more tropical environment then the latitude suggests
Human Ecosystems
1. Mastering the tropics many different environments was a long and difficult struggle
2. In some environments it’s preferred to rely on wild food that they obtained by hunting, fishing, and gathering
3. Fishing was common along all the major lakes and rivers a well as in the oceans
4. Pastoralists consumed milk from their herds and traded hides and meat to neighboring farmers for grain and vegetables
5. By 1200 most Africans had been making their livelihood through agriculture for many centuries
6. Rice cultivation dominated in the fertile Ganges plain of northeast India, in mainland Southeast Asia, and in southern China.
7. By 1200 Bantu- speaking farmers had introduced grains and tubers from West Africa throughout the southern half of the continent
8. Coffee of the Ethiopian origin would shortly become a common drink in the Middle East Water Systems and Irrigation
1. Switching fields was a common practice so that soil could regain fertility
2. Uneven distribution of rainfall during the year was a major problem to many Asian farmers
3. The Delhi Sultanate introduced extensive new water control systems in Northern India
4. Since the tenth century the Indian Ocean island of Ceylon (modern Sri Lanka) had been home to the greatest concentration of irrigation reservoirs and canals in the world.
5. It fell between 1250 and 1400 to the invaders from south India
Mineral Resources
1. Valuable metals like copper and gold were used in long distance trade
2. Iron was the most abundant and useful of the metals, it was used for farming, hunting and clothing
3. Copper was used as currency
4. Africa had an abundance of gold, mines as old from 1200 have been discovered New Islamic Empires
1. Mali was founded by an indigenous African dynasty that had earlier adopted Islam through peaceful influence of Muslim merchants and scholars
Mali in Western Sudan
1. bilad al-sudan “land of the blacks”
2. Christian Ethiopia succefully withstood Muslim advances
3. Sagas say that Sumanguru was able to appear and disappear at will, assume dozens of shapes, and catch arrows in mid flight
4. Mali depended on a well-developed base and control of the lucrative regional and trans- Saharan trade routes
5. Mansa Musa was so wealthy that when he passed through Cairo that the value of gold there remained depressed for years
6. Ibn Battuta had high praise for Mali’s government
7. Two centuries after Sundiata founded the empire, Mali began to disengrate
8. the Hausa states were able to increase their importance as manufacturing and trading centers, becoming famous for their cotton textiles and leather working The Dehli Sultanate in India
1. Raiders from Afghanistan would steal gold and jewels from Hindu and Buddhist temples
2. In the last decades of the twelfth century a new Turkish dynasty mounted a furious assault that succeeded in capturing the important northern Indian cities of Lahore and Delhi
3. Between 1206 and 1236, the Muslim invaders extended...
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